Heat waves and influencing climatic factors in heat stroke death.

 Heat waves and influencing climatic factors in heat stroke death.

 Summer and spring fatalities amount to more than 4,000 deaths from heat waves and are reported by Spain, Poland, Lithuania, France, the Netherlands, Italy and India. The days of water deficit in the body are reflected for a urine flow between 1.9 to 2.3 ml / min related to death by heat stroke in the summer and spring in the period 2017 to 2019. The data from Maximum and minimum temperature, Relative Humidity and Barometric Pressure in Alicante, as well as the maximum Temperature registered in other regions of Spain and in different countries of the environment during the heat wave. The maximum temperatures during the summer of other regions of Spain generally located in the Temperate Climate zone are between 38ºC and 43ºC and with maximum temperatures in other neighboring countries between 39ºC and 43ºC. Juan G. R., Juan Prado J. A. and Juan G. R. Heat waves and influencing climatic factors in heat stroke death. Water and Irrigation Vol.: 11, No. 1: 34-37, June 2, 2020.Spain.

The results were taken from the investigations carried out by Juan and Collaborators on the flow of urine and its relation with climatic factors using an adequate water supply. The investigations were carried out in Alicante for 3 years, 2017-2019 for the different Seasons of the year, which consider winter, spring, summer and autumn. The study of urine flow considers 4 states: the body’s water deficit for values ​​of 1.9 to 2.3 ml / min of flow, water scarcity with flows of 2.4-2.5 ml / min, moderate normal flow with values 2.7-2.9 ml / min and normal urine flow with values ​​greater than 2.9 ml / min.

Research indicates that in adults, the water deficit and the lack of water in the body, reflect that it is necessary to take an adequate supply of water, so to counteract the adverse effects of heat waves during the summer and spring, Normally, around 2 liters of liquid should be taken per day, in addition to which more water must be supplied when the intense heat waves appear, additionally providing 150 to 200 ml each day once the different heat waves appear. In addition, an additional contribution of 700 ml / day must be added for the water contained in the ingested food: fruits, vegetables, different meats and fish, cereals, grains and other foods.

Climatic factors were taken from AEMET data sources at the El Altet Climatic station located about 10 km away from where the investigations were carried out, evaluating daily the behavior of urine and influencing climatic factors: temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind speed.

Research carried out by the Carlos III Health Institute indicates that it is necessary to increase attention to certain groups of the population, such as the elderly, children and some chronically ill as a consequence of the effects of heat waves, and to these they cause risk situations for those who work in the sun during the central hours of the day and can also affect young people. During the years 2000 to 2009, a total of 1,128 deaths were registered by heat waves in the Valencian Community, of which 514 deaths correspond to Alicante. Studies indicate that heat was the culprit in triggering the biological mechanisms capable of causing mortality from 32 to 34 º C.

The population’s exposure to heat is increasing due to climate change, and this trend will continue. On a global scale, it is observed that extreme temperature phenomena are increasing in terms of their frequency, duration and magnitude. Between 2000 and 2016, the number of people exposed to heat waves increased by approximately 125 million. Exposure to excessive heat has far-reaching physiological impacts on all humans, and often amplifies existing conditions and results in premature death and disability, according to WHO.

The hydric deficit and the scarcity of water in the body are manifested at different times of the year depending on the characteristics of the climatic year and the physiology of the individual, generally appearing more frequently during the summer and spring that constitute the 2 seasons of greater climatic demand.

Death from heat stroke is frequently manifested by the combined action of the water deficit in the body and the high climatic demand caused by the heat wave and the joint action of the different climate factors acting on the individual, as observed in the studies carried out: temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind speed.

Spain has 4 climatic regions: Oceanic located in the north of the country influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, Continental of the temperate type that is the most widespread, Mediterranean located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, typical Subtropical of the Canary archipelago and Mountain that is represented by the Mountain System. Alicante is located in the Mediterranean climate and the climatic data obtained correspond to the province of Alicante and to different climatic regions of Spain.

The maximum temperatures recorded in the different surrounding countries affected by the heat wave are also reported. Table No 1 Reflects the days with water deficit in the body for a urine flow between 1.9 to 2.3 ml / min related to death by heat stroke in the summer and spring in the period 2017 to 2019. They are reported the data of maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and barometric pressure in Alicante, as well as the maximum temperature recorded in other regions of Spain and in different countries in the environment during the heat wave.

Research from the 2017-2019 period indicates that death from heat stroke occurs due to the combined action of the water deficit in the flow of urine and the climatic demand caused during the summer by the effect of the heat wave, manifesting with temperatures maximums between 31 º C to 36 º C and minimum temperatures between 21 º C and 25 º C in Alicante which is located in a Mediterranean Climate and are in agreement with the studies carried out by The Carlos III Health Institute for the period 2000- 2009, which indicate that the heat was the culprit of unleashing the biological mechanisms capable of causing mortality from heat stroke from 32 to 34 º C in the Valencian Community.

The maximum temperatures during the summer of other regions of Spain generally located in the Temperate Climate zone are between 38ºC and 43ºC and with maximum temperatures in other neighboring countries between 39ºC and 43ºC. In the spring of 2019 the heat wave manifested itself in neighboring European countries with maximum temperatures between 36ºC and 38ºC, see Table No 1. The fatalities during the summer and spring of 2017-2009 amount to more than 4,000 deaths by the waves of heat and are reported by Spain, Poland, Lithuania, France, the Netherlands, Italy and India.

Only the Water Deficit in the body is insufficient to cause death by heat stroke and is necessary for the presence of the Heat Wave to occur due to the high Water demands it demands, generally influenced by the combined action of different Climatic Factors.     

 Table No 1. Heat waves and climatic factors influencing death from heat stroke in the period 2017-2019 

Seasons

Year

T  Max T min RH BP Heatwaves in other regions of Spain Heat waves in other Countries
   º C º C % hPa    
  Alican Alican Alicante Alicante    
Summer
2017
6/26 33 23 Low Low > 42 º C France 40ºC
7/14 30 25 High moderate Low

moderate

41 º C France 40-41 C
Summer
2018
Heatwave alert Africa 35 23 Very low Low

moderate

Algeria Sahara 5/751.3 º C
7/25 34 22 High moderate Low T max 38º Japan >41ºC S.Korea 40ºC
8/3 35 23 Low Low

moderate

42-44 º C
8/5 36 24 Very low Low > 40 º C

Cordoba43

8/7 33 23 Low Low Cataluña 40º
8/9 31 25 Low

moderate

Low T max.38 º C
8/15 30 25 Low

moderate

Low

moderate

T max.38 º C.
Spring
2019
6/6 27 17 Very low Low Tmax.36º Poland 38º C
6/7 30 15 High moderate Low T max.36 º C Lithuania 36 º C
Summer
2019
High temperate alert6/24 Low Low T max.39 º C Germany 40 º Belgium 40 º

Holland 39 º

Heatwave alert6/26 30 20 High moderate Low

moderate

T max.39 º C India 43 º C
6/28 32 21 Low Low

moderate

42 º C France 46 º C
6/29 34 21 Low Low 43 º C
7/1 34 25 Low Low

moderate

40 º C
7/22 33 23 Low Low

moderate

40 º C Holland 40 France 43º C
8/11 34 25 High moderate Low Xativa 43º

Valencia41

9/2 30 24 High Low

moderate

Córdoba 39º C

 

 

 

 

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