Practical Handbook for grapevine irrigation for winemaking.

Practical Handbook for grapevine irrigation for winemaking.

Authors: David Uriarte Hernandez, Luis Alberto Mancha Ramirez, Oscar Gómez Román, María del Henar Prieto Losada.

Publisher: Center for Scientific Research and Technology of Extremadura. CICYTEX. Agricultural Research Institute Finca “Order-Valdesequera” Department of Horticulture. Group irrigation and nutrition. (Badajoz) In collaboration with the FEDER of the European Union and the INIA, the CICYTEX and the Government of Extremadura in Spain, 2014.

In the agro-climatic conditions for grapevines planting of Tempranillo variety in Extremadura in Spain, considering that the application efficiency of water irrigation system is around 95%, the annual water requirements for the purpose of optimizing production would be about 4052 m3 / ha and irigated time around 152 hours, with a maximum consumption in the month of July, with irrigation that outweigh the hour and half daily average, representing the irrigation in the period from April to July around 75% of the total. Moreover, as the production strategy is aimed at maximizing quality, water requirements would be about 1339 m3 / ha, no higher in any of the months of one hour daily irrigation The most sensitive to lack of water in the vineyard is the period between the end of flowering and fruit set. Controlled deficit irrigation allow us optimizing resources and improving production goals.

To adequately irrigate the vineyard must be taken into account:

  • When handling irrigation it is important to know the phenological cycle of each cultivar, possibly establish generally two periods Pre-envero comprising the months of April, May, June and July and the Post-envero comprising the months August, September and October.
  • The most sensitive to lack of water in the vineyard is the period between the end of flowering and fruit set.
  • In the vines cover the total needs of water is not recommended as it generates a series of management problems, quality and increased costs.
  • The Controlled Irrigation deficit (RDC) allow us optimizing resources and improving production goals.
  • Depending on the production objectives to be achieved must affect a period or another when it comes to establishing a water deficit and it is recommended not cause deficit in the period from April to July when our prime objective in production, while it would be advisable if a certain deficit in this period that prime goal in our production quality.

The months of November, December, January, February and March is considered surplus months of water, ie, they are months in which the consumption of the plant is practically null and the “extra” water supplied to the planting of rainfall is stored on the floor. In this example, the growing conditions in Plantation Tempranillo (evaporative demand, precipitation, soil and crop) and considering that the application efficiency of irrigation water is around 95%, the annual water requirements for a target optimization of production would be about 4052 m3 / ha and irrigation time around 152 hours, with a maximum consumption in the month of July, with irrigation that outweigh the hour and half daily average, representing the irrigation in the period from April to July around 75% of the total.

Furthermore, as the production strategy is aimed at maximizing the quality, water requirements would be about 1339 m3 / ha, no higher in any of the months of one hour daily irrigation, and representing in this case the period April to July (preenvero) 40% of the total volume of water handled. As we can see in these two examples, the total amount of irrigation water needed annually in the 2 production goals are different, as well the moment and the irrigation times throughout the growing season.

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