Effects of El Niño phenomenon.

Juan G. R. and Juan Prado J. A. Effects of El Niño phenomenon.

Water and Irrigation Vol .: 7, No. 1: 7-8, February, 2016, Spain. 

El Nino phenomenon is causing various disturbances weather patterns such as heavy rainfall, flooding, increased ocean temperatures, droughts, forest fires and stronger typhoons in the Western Pacific, in the 2015-2016 El Niño campaign it has also raised the average ocean temperatures contribute to global warming and accelerating the melting of Antarctica. Currently the phenomenon is active and its effect is considered to be manifested longer.

El Niño in 2015 is considered very active and is another factor that contributes to global warming. El Niño is a warming of the Eastern Pacific Ocean mainly along the Ecuador and its zone of influence, it occurs between cycles of 3-8 years, and lasts about 7-10 months.

El Niño is causing various disturbances weather patterns such as heavy rainfall, flooding, increased ocean temperatures, droughts, forest fires and stronger typhoons in the Western Pacific.

As a result of the effects of El Niño have caused heavy rainfall and flooding in the Southern Cone countries and the United States and drought in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Central America, much of the Pacific States of the United States , countries of East Africa and in southeast Asian countries.

The fires were very common in Brazil some 235,000 forest fires were reported in 2015, facilitating the increase in temperature and winds the risk of forest fires, in Colombia 4435 fires was occurred, which have destroyed large areas of forest and farmland.

Altering the atmospheric pressure can also occur with El Niño which causes a variation in the direction and wind speed in the same region where it manifests. This condition it is known under the name of Southern Oscillation.

The typhoon season in the Pacific 2015 was an event in which tropical cyclones in the western Pacific Ocean was formed. The season was active throughout the year with peak intensity between July and October .The recorded a total of 35 depressions, 25 storms and 16 typhoons, according to Wikipedia, 2015.

In the Antarctic melting it has accelerated in 2015 as a result of global warming caused mainly by high emissions of greenhouse gases, but in the 2015-2016 campaign El Nino has contributed to the increase in ocean temperature, further accelerating over the process of glacial melting especially in icy layer that is above sea level is the one in more contact with seawater.

The negative effects of melting in the Arctic and Antarctic is easily visible in countries with low topography in relation to sea level as Bangladesh and islands of Oceania, where people have lost part of their coasts, their houses and lands due to the continuous rise in sea level and have been displaced to safer places or migrate.

High temperatures occur on the surface of the Earth and the seas and oceans both. Large areas in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and part of the Atlantic Ocean have recorded record high temperatures, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

El Niño is a natural event in the Pacific Ocean, characterized by intense tectonic activity: volcanic and seismic energy that add to the seafloor and atmosphere. Volcanic events and phenomena of El Niño show a close relationship and dependence between them. The intensity of such events not only depends on the volume of lava expelled, but the amount of gases, vapors, ash and sulfur removed by volcanoes into the ocean and the atmosphere, according to the Research Institute of the Faculty of Geology of Peru.

Currently El Niño is active in excess of 2.5 degrees Celsius values above the normal temperature of the ocean and its effect is considered to be manifested for more time.


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