Juan G. R. The European Union require more water resources management.
Water and Irrigation. Vol: 4, No. 1: 3-4, January, 2013, Spain.
The extreme water stress is characteristic of most part of the territory of Spain, from the eastern and Mediterranean zone of France, Cyprus, some parts of England, is also evident in some areas of Ireland, Belgium and Estonia. The water stress of 21-40% is present in Italy and in parts of the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. The most favorable conditions of not water stress is located in the other European Union countries. Currently about 40% of the area of the Union suffers overexploitation of water resources, however during the course of the next 15 years of not taking timely measures will increase the number of members that will be affected by water stress . Decisions are being made but still need more effort and management to achieve and maintain the goals.
In the European Union is considered that the water exploitation index of 0 to 20% represents no water stress, the index of 21-40% show water stress, more than 40% reflects an extreme water stress, based in the proportion of water extracted each year at relation to the water resources available in each country. The report has been prepared taking into account indicators of basic map of water exploitation index of the European Environment Agency. http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/water-exploitation-index-2014-towards
Currently the most favorable conditions of no water stress are located in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Lithuania, Latvia, Iceland, Switzerland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Austria, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland and Turkey.
Water stress of 21-40% was seen in Italy, in the north of France, in some regions of the UK, in the south of the Czech Republic and in West Bulgaria. The extreme water stress is characteristic of most of the territory of Spain, to the eastern and Mediterranean zone of France, Cyprus, some parts of England, is also evident in some areas of Ireland, Belgium and Estonia.
There are countries that are characterized by various indices of water stress, such as France, UK, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Bulgaria. There are also countries that a part of this don’t has water stress, while another part of it has water stress as Belgium, Estonia and the Czech Republic. The water exploitation index of 0-20% no water stress was obtained from the group of categories of 0-10% and 10-20%, in order to group a large number of countries.
The increase in water consumption during the next 15 years is estimated at over 10%, as a result of population growth, industrial development, the increase in service sector and agriculture. Water losses are estimated over 30% as a result of poor water conduction and distribution of different users, so it is necessary to take steps to reduce these losses. The temperature rise due to global climate change causes water shortages and drought and flood due to climate variability, increasing economic losses due to the effect of droughts and floods.
Analysis of water situation shows that currently about 40% of the area of the European Union suffers overexploitation of water resources and that 60% have not exceeded the consequences of water stress, however during the next 15 years without take timely measures will increase the exploitation of water resources and increase the number of member countries of the European Union to be affected by water stress. Also the construction of diversions will enable to carry water from areas with surpluses to other water-scarce regions, allowing a proper balance of water resources.
The world’s population is 7000 million at current growth pace in 2050 the world’s population could exceed 10 billion people, is expected gradual increase in global food demand, so it is not strategically reduce irrigation areas, but is necessary to increase in driving efficiency and water distribution, modernize irrigation techniques and perform adequate irrigation water management and better management of water resources to reduce consumption, as the agriculture is the largest user of water worldwide, is also necessary to establish a state assistance for water and irrigation to achieve the objectives. All this must be accompanied by a short research plan and reaching for water, irrigation, drainage, treatment and utilization of wastewater as well as an action plan for the introduction of the achievements of science and technique.
Agriculture is the economic sector that demand more water, making it strategically in the EU that much of the new growth of irrigated areas are established primarily in countries or areas with no water deficit. According to FAO data rainfed agriculture is used in 83% of the cultivated areas, which allow production of 60% of the world’s food, yet irrigated areas account for only 17% and allow a production of 40% of the world’s food.
Currently the European Union is taking steps to better management of groundwater and surface water in the natural geographical boundaries, treatment of waste water, the development of research projects and conducting awareness campaigns and monitoring, but even need more funding, more control, more effort and management to achieve and maintain the goals.
Water Exploitation Index in the smallest available data desegregation