Juan G. R. World production of cereals and grains challenges climate variability
Water and Irrigation. Volume: 3, No. 1: 11-12, October, 2012, Spain.
In late October 2012 there is a deficit in the global production of cereals and grains, large producers have been affected by drought as USA, Russia, India, Mexico, Spain and Eastern European countries or flooding as the case China and Argentina. The South American countries are prepared to increase production of cereals, grains and oilseeds. In Africa the major grain producing countries in central and eastern dedicated to increasing cereal areas. In this challenge the major countries gradually recover from the damage of drought and floods and prepare to face the new planting campaigns. The increase in the areas of irrigation and the drainage of agricultural fields will enable greater food security in relation to the production of cereals and grains.
-The monsoon rains 2012 in India, is considered insufficient since they are below the average of the last 50 years. India is one of the largest consumers and food producers in the world, with a population of about 1200 million. Early in the fall of 2012 in the state of Assam located in the northeastern region of the country were affected 17 districts by the overflow of the river Brahmaputra which rises in the mountains of Tibet, which has caused 27 deads and 1.5 million damnificates. India has 28 states and the floods have affected a very specific area so that the level of drought still continues.
-China’s largest consumer and producer of food in the world with a population of over 1.3 billion people, is affected food production in 22 of the 30 governments that the country as a result of successive floods during spring and summer of 2012 that damaged economic facilities and affected more than 4 million hectares. But China is gradually recovering from the floods and is prepared with new planting strategies according the needs of the country.
– In the United States of America is affected half of the country’s crops, which in the summer of 2012, has suffered its worst drought in 50 years, affecting most of the states. The drought is particularly severe in the Midwest and primarily affects wheat, corn and soybeans. The impairment caused by the drought is very significant when you take into consideration that the U.S. is the largest exporter of food in the world. Currently USA is preparing for the new season of cereals and grains.
-Russia has also been affected by drought, 7% of the crops, although with less intensity, which affects more than 5 million hectares of crops, which also impairs the production of cereals and grains.
– Mexico is affected by drought since it has caused huge losses in agriculture, are affected 19 of the 32 states facing the country, insufficient rainfall affect agriculture and livestock, the lack of water has also damaged considerably production of maize and beans in the country.
-The drought is also affecting significantly the agricultural crop yields in several countries in Central America and the Caribbean, is damaged especially cereals and grain production and as intense drought, the producers do not have sufficient water works and irrigation systems.
– Cereal production is affected by drought in the countries of Eastern Europe, primarily in Romania to 36%, in Hungary production will fall about 19%, in Bulgaria the 8 % and 3% in Poland. But is expected to increase grain production by 9%, 9% and 5% in France, Italy and Germany respectively. In Spain it is estimated that cereal production due to drought this year will affect about 19% compared with the year 2011.
– Heavy rains have caused major flooding in the province of Buenos Aires, the largest of the 23 provinces that have Argentina, affecting more than 5 million hectares of crops, of which 170,000 hectares grains were submerged and other 800 000 hectares are on wet, which can not be planted by now the campaign of corn and soybeans. But in Argentina there are many agricultural regions that can be planted to restore the areas affected by the floods.
– The State of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil is affected by the worst drought in the northeast in the past 30 years, drought has destroyed crops, this year the rainfall in the region is less than 150 mm in the first 6 months of the year and are required not less than 600 mm to ensure production. However Brazil with an area of 8.5 km2, has 26 states and the federal district where there are many agricultural regions with favorable agro-climatic conditions for the production of cereals and grains, Brazil has six climatic regions: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, tropical upland, temperate, subtropical, the tropical climate usually prevails.
-West African countries are declining cereal yields mainly in the Sahel region, first affected by the severe drought and after by floods. Also in the horn of Africa integrate by Eritrea, Jibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia, the crops have been affected significantly by drought. However there are areas dedicated to increase mainly cereals in different countries of central and eastern Africa as corn and wheat are staples of the population. We need to invest even more in seed, technology, irrigation, fertilizers and human resources to increase agricultural production in Africa.
-The countries of South America with Brazil and Argentina at the top are prepared to increase production of cereals, grains and oilseeds to consider: the high prices of soybeans, wheat and corn which is quoted at 613, 334 and $ 300 / ton, respectively, during the month of September in the Chicago Stock Exchange, as well as the climatic conditions and the decline in global production of large producers, which have been affected by drought as USA, Russia, India, Mexico , Spain and Eastern European countries or by floods such as China and Argentina. In Africa the major cereals producing countries of central and eastern regions of the country increase the areas devoted to cereals. In this challenging major producer of cereals and grains gradually recover damages from drought and flooding and are prepared to face the new planting campaigns.
-Today there are global supply deficit of cereals and grains, is very important to be careful in assessing: the climatic conditions, the planting strategy by different countries producing cereals and grains and the evolution of prices, to achieve the objective of ensuring global demand for grains and beans and to get adequate profitability of future harvests. It is necessary to evaluate that the increase the areas of irrigation and the drainage of agricultural fields will enable greater food security in relation to the production of cereals and grains.