Fayanas E.E. Water crisis in India
Rebellión:Social Ecology 19-12-2010.
India is the second most populous country in the world with more than one billion people in 2030, will be the first world’s most populous country. We witness a spectacular economic development with annual growth of 8% of GDP, leading to new energy requirements, raw materials, water, etc. To achieve higher per capita income per capita and with such a dramatic rise in population will lead to a rapid collapse of the water. The water crisis growth as quickly as it develops economically.
Uncontrolled expansion of cities and a huge, thirsty agricultural area have meant new demands for a public network of health services poorly managed. The combination has caused the water too scarce in some places, contaminated in others, or it reaches a fateful abundance for millions of people suffering from floods every year. Today the water threatens the ability to strengthen his poor Indian farms, the maintain economic growth and make its cities healthy and habitable. Water has become a serious problem. The Indian water system basically depends on the Ganges and Indus rivers.
The Hindus have 2.240m3 per person / year, which decreases each year due to two causes, first of its strong population growth and secondly for economic development that engulfs the country. It can be said that India is near the so-called water stress. Over 700 million Indians, about two-thirds of the population lack adequate sanitation. Due in large part to the lack of drinking water. Each year in this country are killed 2.1 million children under five years old according to the UN, mainly due to diseases carried by water. The problems in New Delhi are a good example of the water problem in the cities.
Throughout supply networks are so impaired that no city can provide public water mains throughout the day. If there are water problem demand, the situation is compounded by the elimination of waste and sewage. New Delhi can not satisfy your thirst nor adequately get rid of most of the wastewater that it generate. Around 45% of its population is not connected to public sewerage system.
New Delhi comes two thousand years ago on the banks of Yamuna river. Hindu mythology considers this out of the blue river. On their way through the capital this river is biologically dead. He draws some 850 million liters per day, the main source of supply of capital, but when you leave the capital has become a cesspool of waste, where it is dumped about 3,600 million liters of wastewater per day. In an analysis of the Yamuna is discovered that the level of coliform, which is a measure of the dirt, is 100,000 times greater than the maximum allowed. The net supply of capital has a length of 9,000 km, but the state is the total deterioration, which causes the loss level of 40% swing on the water it carries.
About 18% of urban population and 29% of rural population don’t have drinking water available. Indian agriculture uses 85% of available water. Only to feed the new population, water demand will increase by 50% by 2025. The industrial centers need to triple its consumption for the same year. As we see, their water requirements are triggered, at in the present time have little capacity to respond.
The Ganges river is one of the backbones of its water system, and is the sacred river of Hindus. Born in the southern slopes of the Himalayas, with 2,510 km long, flows into the Bay of Bengal. Much of that water comes from China and Nepal before entering India. About 40% of its flow comes from the two aforementioned countries and both have been requested by the Hindus. Its main tributary, the Brahmaputra river is born in China, describing a large arc around Bhutan before entering India and then in Bangladesh, leading to the river Ganges in the Bay of Bengal.
The river systems of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra comprise less than 0.2% of the world’s land, however, are inhabited by 10% of the population. It is an area prone to floods, droughts and cyclones. Sometimes you are missing the water, while others seem to not go to see land that is not covered by this water. Like any system shared river, the Ganges is a source of international conflict. The dispute dates back almost since independence in 1947. In 1951, the government of India announced that it will raise the Farakka Dam on the Ganges, in the province of Bengal near the border of East Pakistan. The aim is to transfer by means of a canal, water from the to the Calcutta Hindu port that danger it silt unusable.
They need enough water to wash the mud of the port, but this channel is detrimental to East Pakistan, which depends on the Ganges and Brahmaputra. Pakistanis call for a global solution but India says that water is yours to dispose of it. Pakistan counters that have historical rights. While India states says that all countries can build dams in its territory and the water stored is freely available. East Pakistan became independent from West Pakistan in 1971, becoming Bangladesh. India helped the Bengalis in their fight for independence. This facilitated the reaching of agreement on the Ganges, forming a Joint River Commission Bengali Indo. Agreement was signed in 1977, guaranteeing to Bangladesh, which in the dry season water will have a minimum of 63% of river flow, in exchange for the Bengalis built a new channel between the Brahmaputra and the Ganges, to increase the flow of this river.
The other major river for the water system in India is the Indus, it was born in Tibet, flows through India and Pakistan to reach its delta on the Arabian Gulf. It has the largest and oldest irrigation system. Its flow triples the Euphrates/ Tigris river system and is eqivalent to two Nile rivers.Indus river generates strong friction between Pakistan and India. In 1960, he signed the Treaty Indus Waters under World Bank supervision. Its waters are divided between the two countries, with the eastern tributaries (tributaries rivers Sutley, Beas and Ravi) to India and the western tributaries (the Khelum and Chenab) to Pakistan.
As we see, water is one of the most vivid conflict, not because of their scarcity but to the bad use and pollution that is killing his animal life, beginning to be dangerous for humans, not only because they can not be drunk, but by the contamination of the food chain, has reached such level the water damage in these countries.
Flooding is ongoing in India. Many environmentalists blame from them to the huge dams built to control precisely the natural water systems. Many experts believe that these are produced by the failure to maintain an appropriate balance between controlling the flow of water and other uses of large reservoirs such as irrigation and hydropower generation.