Juan G. R., Juan G. R., Juan A. P. J. Pollution in major and small rivers continues increasing.
Water and Irrigation Vol .: 7, No. 1: 13-15, June, 2016, Spain.
As a result of continuous discharges into rivers waste from industry, agriculture, urban areas, the mining sector and inadequate treatment of wastewater, water pollution has increased considerably in the major rivers as well as reach smaller rivers. Pollution is manifested in major rivers on every continent such as: Yangtse, Jian, Ganges, Yamuna rivers, the Nile, Danube, Mississippi and Tiete river. Currently pollution of small rivers and other large remains alarming and rising as seen in the rivers Mekong, Volga, Amur, Moscow, Neva, Citarum, Pasig in Asia, in Blanco, Magdalena, Medellin, Bogota rivers in the Americas, on the Niger river in Africa, on the Elbe, Scheldt and Llobregat rivers in Europe and the Condamine river in Australia.
Pollution is manifested in the major rivers of all continents such as the Yangtze River and the Jian River in China, the Ganges and the Yamuna River in India located in Asia, on the Nile River in Africa, the Danube river in Europe, on the Mississippi river in the United States and the Tiete river in Brazil both in the Americas.
–In Asia with a population of 4.4 billion, the world’s most populous continues increasing number of river pollution due to the large impact of human activity:
.The Mekong River rises in the Himalayas, has a length of 4,880 km., Has a basin with an area of 810,000 km2, the average flow is between 15,000 / 39,000 m3 sec. Flows through six countries: China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. After examining the water wells are along the Mekong River, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, the United Nations Fund for Children (UNICEF) and the governments of these countries have concluded that 1 7 million people are at risk of arsenic poisoning, whose long-term consequences include damage and skin cancer. Environmental contamination, the construction of large swamps and deforestation of large areas of the basin threaten the sustainability of this river.
.The Rivers: Volga, Amur, Moscow and Neva in Russia have large industrial areas in cities located in the vicinity of these rivers and as a result there is a high industrial and urban water pollution linked to industrial development and the large concentration of population nucleus in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities. Industrial pollutants include heavy metals, aluminum, mercury, sulfur, oil and constitute a problem for local ecosystems and health of people.
.The Citarum River in Indonesia that supplies water to the capital Jakarta, was chosen in 2007 as the world’s most polluted river due to the amount of floating debris that this has. More than 60% of the waters of the rivers in Jakarta are heavily polluted as a result of urban and industrial waste.
.The Pasig river in Philippines passes through the capital Manila. After the war thousands of people came to Manila in search of work, resulting in neighborhoods slums multiplied in the river banks which caused an increase in sewage and waste garbage, which together with factories release their chemical waste into the river, the great urban pollution and few resources dedicated to the decontamination of wastewater makes the situation even more complicated, the Pasig river was declared biologically dead zone.
–In The American continent with a population of 990 million increase in polluted rivers is also manifested.
.In Mexico the 73% of the rivers are polluted, the Veracruz tributaries Blanco and Coatzacoalcos top the list, according to the National Water Commission Conagua. It is estimated that the country’s water bodies are contaminated as a result of 80% of discharges of urban centers and 85% of industrial discharges directly discharged into them. Colombia also has big problems with water quality, it is estimated that the industry, agriculture and domestic sewage pollute greatly aquifers and rivers, which seriously affects the quality of the liquid in the Magdalena, Medellin, Bogota and Cauca rivers. Latin America also has a high pollution in their rivers as a result of the great impact of human activity, only 20 percent of wastewater is treated, the rest of the liquid is discharged in the various bodies of water.
–In The African continent much of its rivers and lakes are polluted by human overexploitation with a current population of 1.2 billion, there are alarming levels of environmental pollution caused by oil and agricultural multinationals as well as the discharges of waste water urban and industrial untreated so the population suffers great epidemics and economic and sustainable development of many African countries is affected. .The Niger River is the main river in West Africa. Born in Guinea and later through four countries: Mali, Niger, Benin and Nigeria. Its length reaches 4,184 kilometers, making it the third longest river in Africa, exceeded only by the Nile and the Congo rivers. Its basin reaches 2,262,000 km2. The Niger Delta occupies about 70,000 square kilometers and is populated in its entirety by about thirty million people. Pollution by the oil spill is caused by multinational oil companies. The absence of measures to address the long-term effects of oil pollution on soil fertility and agricultural productivity is a major problem in the Niger Delta.
–In The European continent with a population of 880 million, industrial pollution by organic chemicals, residues from agriculture and urban discharges from cities in water, are the most widespread in the basins of the rivers of Europe problems.
.A Group of European scientists from Belgium, Germany, Spain, France and Slovakia conducted a study on pollution of European rivers and presented the results in the journal Science of the Total Environment, more than 500 organic substances found in the basins analyzed four European rivers: the Elbe, the Danube, the Scheldt and the Llobregat. The report concludes that contamination by organic chemicals is widespread problem throughout Europe, 38% of these substances are found in concentrations that could be lethal to organisms river basin.
–The Australian continent has not escaped the pollution of the waters of rivers:
.In The Condamine River methane emissions as a result of the gas industry, causing flames in the bubbles of methane by bringing a flame into the river. In Australia the increased concentration of salts in rivers caused by agriculture, demands solutions to protect salinization aquatic ecosystems, the pollution gas emissions gas industry and waste water from urban areas are the main causes pollution in Australia. In the Murray-Darling River in southern Australia, the introduction of foreign species has altered the ecosystem of the river, nine different kinds of fish have already been declared endangered because of the introduction of carp, which has contributed to the degradation of the environment of the river and its tributaries.