Water and milk consumption researches in different seasons in 2018.

 Water and milk consumption researches in different seasons in 2018.  

During the summer of 2018 the initial contribution of liquids in water and milk was 1935 ml / day to which must be added during that stage an additional supply of water of 150 ml / day for water management and a gradual contribution of 200 ml / day and 100 ml / day for 1.0-7.0 am to counteract the respective effect of heat waves, with a total contribution of 2375 ml / day. Summer is the season of the year in the northern hemisphere with the highest climate demand and it is the time when people need to consume the most water. The results were taken from the investigations carried out by Juan and Collaborators on the flow of urine and its relationship with the climatic factors that were carried out in Alicante for 3 years, 2017-2019 for the different times of the year, which consider winter, spring, summer and autumn. Juan G. R., Juan Prado J. A. and Juan G. R. Water and milk consumption researches in different seasons in 2018.   Water and Irrigation Vol.: 11, No. 1: 21-24, April 24, 2020, Spain.

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The human body is made up largely of water; the average constitutes about 65% of body weight. This average value is calculated considering all ages and sexes, but it varies with age: in the elderly it is generally less, in babies it is around 80% of the weight, in men it is usually greater than in women. The kidneys contain approximately 83% water, the lungs 80%, the liver 74%, the brain 75%, the muscles 75%, the blood 80%, the skin 65% and the bones only below 15% according to anatomical and physiological studies of the Ministry of Health.

The obese and overweight people are those who have a lower percentage of water in the body, due to a greater amount of adipose tissue that usually has less than 20% water, so these people can contain water in the body with values ​​less than 50%.

Water is a solvent for minerals, water-soluble vitamins and nutrients, thus it acts on different metabolic functions of the individual, transports oxygen to the cells and constitutes the main component in many fluids such as saliva and sweat. Water is a thermal buffer to regulate the internal temperature of the body. Through water, numerous waste substances and toxic substances are eliminated through urine and sweat.

The World Health Organization recommends that one liter be taken daily for every 35 kilos of weight. Age, weather or sports practice can raise that amount.

According to the European Food Safety Commission (EFSA), the recommended consumption of liquids from the age of 14 should be 2.5 liters a day for men due to a higher demand for calories and 2 liters / day in the case of women. According to a survey in the case of adult men, 33 percent stay below 2.5 liters / day and in the case of women, 21 percent do not consume the 2 liters / day indicated “, according to the University Institute of Biomedical and Health Research.

On the other hand, there is who recommend drinking at least 2 liters of water a day to guarantee an adequate water supply, not is it recommended to drink more water than necessary.

The results were taken from the investigations carried out by Juan and Collaborators on the flow of urine and its relationship with the climatic factors that were carried out in Alicante for 3 years, 2017-2019 for the different seasons of the year, which consider winter, spring, summer and autumn, the body’s water deficit was studied for values ​​of 1.9 to 2.3 ml / min for the flow of urine and for a normal flow of urine with values ​​greater than 2.9 ml / min according to the investigations carried out.

Summer is the season of the year with the greatest climatic demand, which is why it is the period when people consume the most water. During the summer of 2018, the initial contribution of liquids in water and milk was 1935 ml / day, to which must be added during this stage an additional supply of water of 150 ml / day for water management and a gradual contribution of 200 ml / day and 100 ml / day during 1.0-7.0 am in the heat waves to counteract their effect respectively, with a total contribution of 2375 ml / day during the stage, see Table No1. The summer of 2019 behaved more heat than 2018 for a total liquid supply of 2425 ml / day during the stage. The results are in accordance with the recommendations of the European Food Safety Commission.

In the spring of 2018 there was no heat wave so no additional contributions were made to counteract the effect of heat, only an additional supply of 100 ml / day was made per water management, for a final liquid value of 1935 ml / day and agrees with the WHO recommendation to provide 1 liter of water per 35 kg of weight.

The final contribution of liquids during the winter was 1935 ml / day and in the autumn of 1825 ml / day during that stage, because they are seasons of the year where low temperatures predominate.  During 2018:

The average annual contribution per day of water and milk + The water contained in 24 hours in food eaten in fruits, vegetables and other foods + Additional water contribution during the heat wave, which together totaled a total of 2584 ml / day for the annual average of the 4 seasons, the average annual contribution per day during the summer being the highest.

The average contribution of supplemental water contained in fruits and vegetables in 2018 was: 420 ml / day in the winter, 490 ml / day in the spring, 498 ml / day in the summer and 468 ml / day in fall. The average supplemental water intake contained in other foods was: 231 ml / day in the winter, 238 ml / day in the spring, 236 ml / day in the summer and 211 ml / day in the fall. The results were calculated taking into account the investigations carried out by Juan, during 4 years in the period 2013 and 2016, on the food eaten daily using for this the balance method that uses the amounts ingested in: calories, proteins, total fats, saturated fats, carbohydrates, fibers, sodium, cholesterol and the contribution of water, nutrients and vitamins. It is concluded that with an adequate diet, the amount of food ingested in: meat and fish, carbohydrates, fiber, fruit, vegetables and other foods is distributed in a balanced way, a balanced management of food, nutrients and cost of food eaten, improves the health and quality of life of people.

 

Table No 1 Diagram of distribution of the supply of consumed water and milk at different seasons of the year in 2018   

Seasons year 2018 9.30 AM 12.3 PM 3.3 PM 7.0 PM 9.3 PM 10–7.0 AM

Gradual

Supply during

Total Water

in stage

Total Milk

 and Yogurt

            wave heat    
ml/d ml/d ml/d ml/d ml/d ml/ day ml/d ml/day
Winter
Initial distribution  300       400 400 100 200 1400 + 325
Water management

Add 200 ml /d

 

+100

 

 

+100

 

+200

Final balance ml / day 1600 + 325
Spring
Initial distribution 400 400 400 100 200 1500 + 325
Water management

Add 100 ml /d

 

+100

 

+100

Add by heat wave 0     0  0
Final balance ml / day 1600 + 325
Summer
Initial distribution 450 400 400 150 200 1600 + 325
Water management Add 150 ml /d  

+ 100

 

+50

 

+ 150 a

Add 200 ml/d during heat wave  

 

+ 200 + 200 a
Add 100 ml/d during heat wave + 100 + 100 a
Suspend 100 ml by passing heat wave –  100
Suspend 200 ml by passing heat wave –  200
Suspend 150 ml before the end of summer -100 -50
Balance during stage ml/ day 2050         +325

 

Final balance

ml / day

1600 + 325
   
Fall
Initial distribution 400 400 400 100 200 1500 + 325
Suspend 100 ml before the end of autumn  

-100

Balance during stage ml/ day 1500 + 325
Final balance ml / day 1400            +325

  

 

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