Juan G. R. Strengthening of water administrative infrastructures.
Alicante , Spain , 25/06/2006 .
The situation of drought in Spain, cause that demand for water users are not able to guarantee the total, affecting water demands raised, mainly in the agricultural sector, which demand approximately 75% of water resources in operation. In an era of severe drought like this be so far the period 2004 – 2006, the ravages of drought and have caused losses of billions of euros and still increase crop losses as a result of water shortage exists.
It shows that: the dams have reduced the volume of water available, the reserves of reservoirs in the basins of Segura- Jucar highly deficit and the deficit basins of the South-Guadalquivir not exceed, on average, 20% and 40% their capacity respectively, groundwater dry Spain being operated on and recovered slightly, lowering the water table level dynamic in more than 5 meters per year in regions subject to a demand intensive, as it is necessary in many cases pumping water more than 100 meters deep, rivers have dropped their flow, transfers are insufficient, desalination solve problems of water needs in certain urban areas and partially in some agricultural areas.
There is a need to build more reservoirs, desalination plants and regulatory works, waterworks, recharging aquifer, which are capable of regulating runoff in wet years to ensure more usable water in drought years, with the aim of reducing the ravages of drought and try to avoid the rapid advance of desertification, which affects more intensity areas that have a large deficit of water.
Water resources of underground and surface watersheds require efficient management and therefore should be clarified further volumes of water available, the systematic monitoring of the quality of water from aquifers and for irrigation, evaluate the effect of saline intrusion, and must take the necessary steps for the systematic control of aquifers, in order to protect water resources and to achieve a more rational use of water.
We must be projected a country hydraulic development plan in short and long term, which deepened further in the solutions or alternatives works to be carried out in each basin and necessary material, human and financial resources, according to the demand plans for water user in each Autonomous Community. It must be conducted studies of the environmental impact of each work and whole, as well as assess the economic losses for the construction of these, to determine the economic impact of each of the improvements made and assess the socio-economic transformations that development plan hydraulic causes, with the aim of better solutions. Building Complex Water and transfers within the same basin and between different basins make it possible to more fully utilize the runoff and therefore achieve greater assurance of water available.
It is advisable to strengthen the administrative infrastructure dedicated to water for the purpose that may pooling resources and institutions existing, as well as enabling the acceleration of decision-making in the various activities involved in developing the country’s water resources, with the possibility of creating a National Institute of Water Resources with a lot more control and hierarchy on the surface and groundwater resources of the country, as the water is a resource increasingly valuable and indispensable for the population, agriculture, tourism, industry, construction, electricity energy, the fight against desertification and an integral part and sustainable of the environment and thus as a decisive factor in the harmonious and sustainable development of Spain and the planet Earth.
It is also necessary to create more institutions involved mainly research and development related: to water, energy conservation, irrigation, drainage, the sustainability of the basin and its use, reuse of wastewater, fighting floods, desertification, salinization of the soil and irrigated areas, allowing carried out research and development work in a systematic way and with many more human and financial resources dedicated to these activities, making it possible for research and technological development in the field of water reach throughout the national territory.