Juan G. R., Juan Prado J. A. and Juan G. R. Urine flows and their relationship with heat stroke death in 2017-2019. Water and Irrigation Vol.: 11, No. 1: 30-33, May 18, 2020, Spain. The behavior of urine flow and its relationship with death from heat stroke during the period 2017-2019 in Alicante in different seasons of the year were studied, where 4 states are considered: the body’s water deficit for values of 1.9 to 2.3 ml / min for urine flow, water scarcity with flows of 2.4-2.5 ml / min, moderate normal flow with values of 2.7-2.9 ml / min and normal flow of urine with values greater than 2.9 ml / min. In the summer and spring of 2019, the number of deaths and the attention of cases due to heat stroke increased considerably, 6 and 4 days were registered respectively with water deficit; deaths from heat waves and heat wave admissions also occurred in the summer of 2018 and 2017. Death from heat stroke is frequently manifested by the combined action of the water deficit on the body and the high climate demand caused by the wave of hot.
The human body is made up largely of water the average constitutes 65% of body weight. This average value is calculated considering all ages and sexes, but it varies with age: in the elderly it is generally less, in babies it is around 80% of the weight, in men it is usually greater than in women. The kidneys contain approximately 83% water, the lungs 80%, the liver 74%, the brain 75%, the muscles 75%, the blood 80%, the skin 65% and the bones only below 15% according to anatomical and physiological studies of the Ministry of Health.
The kidneys produce urine by filtering waste and excess water from the blood. The waste is called urea; blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine reaches the bladder through two thin tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until you feel like going to the bathroom. The bladder expands when full and becomes smaller when empty according to the National Library of Medicine in the USA
Water is a solvent for minerals, water-soluble vitamins and nutrients, thus it acts on different metabolic functions of the individual, transports oxygen to the cells and constitutes the main component in many fluids such as saliva and sweat. Water is a thermal buffer to regulate the internal temperature of the body. Through water, numerous waste substances and toxic substances are eliminated through urine and sweat.
The World Health Organization recommends that one liter be taken daily for every 35 kilos of weight. Age, weather or sports practice can raise that amount.
According to the European Food Safety Commission (EFSA), the recommended consumption of liquids from the age of 14 should be 2.5 liters a day for men due to a higher demand for calories and 2 liters / day in the case of women. According to a survey in the case of adult men, 33 percent stay below 2.5 liters / day and in the case of women, 21 percent do not consume the 2 liters / day indicated “, according to the University Institute of Biomedical and Health Research.
On the other hand, there is whose recommend drinking at least 2 liters of water a day to guarantee an adequate water supply, nor is it recommended to drink more water than necessary.
The average annual urine flow in Phase 1 from 1.0 to 10.0 AM from the 2017 investigations in Alicante, Spain was 3.0 ml / min and 0.44 ml / min in Phase 2 from 10.0 AM to 1.0 AM. The urine collected during Phase 1 is 1,394 ml / day / phase and represents 76.5% of all urine, while the urine evacuated during Phase 2 is 427 ml / day / phase, which represents only 23.5 %. The total urine average in 24 hours is 1821 ml / day (F-1 + F-2).
The urine collected during Phase 1, from 1.0 to 10.0 AM of the 2018 investigations is 1354 ml / day / phase and represents 76.4% of all, while the urine during Phase 2, from 10.0 AM to 1.0 AM is 418 ml / day / phase, represents only 23.6% of the total. The total average urine in 24 hours was 1773 ml / day. The additional contribution of water during the heat wave plus the contribution of the water contained in 24h in the ingested food was 2583.9 ml / day for the annual average of the 4 times of the year. The annual average urine flow in F-1 was 3.0 ml / min and 0.42 ml / min in Phase 2.
The urine collected during Phase 1, from 1.0 to 10.0 AM of the 2019 investigations in the spring is 1334 ml / day / phase, with an average urine flow of 3.1 ml / min / day and in the summer are 1436 ml / day / phase, with an average urine flow of 3.2 ml / min / day.
The results were taken from the investigations carried out by Juan and Collaborators on urine flow and its relation with climatic factors using an adequate water supply. The investigations were carried out in Alicante for 3 years, 2017-2019 for the different times of the year, which consider winter, spring, summer and autumn. The study of urine flow considers 4 states: the body’s water deficit for values of 1.9 to 2.3 ml / min of flow, water scarcity with flows of 2.4-2.5 ml / min, moderate normal flow with values 2.7-2.9 ml / min and normal urine flow with values greater than 2.9 ml / min.
Research indicates that in adults, the water deficit and the lack of water in the body, reflect that it is necessary to take an adequate supply of water, so to counteract the adverse effects of heat waves during the summer and spring, Normally, around 2 liters of liquid should be taken daily, in addition to which more water must be supplied when intense heat waves appear, additionally contributing 100 to 200 ml each time the different heat waves appear. In addition, an additional contribution of 700 ml / day must be considered for the water contained in the ingested food: fruits, vegetables, different meats and fish, cereals, grains and other foods.
Summer is the season of the year with the greatest climatic demand, which is why it is the period when people consume the most water. The summer of 2019 behaved the hottest for a total liquid supply of 2425 ml / day during the stage; the final contribution of liquids in the spring was 2025 ml / day during that stage. The final contribution of liquids during the winter was about 2 liters / day and about 2 l / day in the fall, because they are the two seasons of the year with the least climatic demand where low temperatures predominate.
The hydric deficit and the scarcity of water in the body are manifested at different times of the year depending mainly on the characteristics of the climatic year, the physiology and diseases of the individual, the inadequate supply of liquids, their appearance generally being more frequent during summer and spring are the seasons of the year with the highest water requirements.
The flow of urine with water deficit represents 4% and the scarcity of water 7%. Normal and normal moderate urine flows constitute respectively 20% and 69% of the total and are the most predominant, see Table No 1. The most dangerous and aggressive is the flow of urine with water deficit when there are heat waves, because the joint action of both can cause death by heat stroke.
In the summer and spring of 2019, the number of deaths and the attention of cases due to heat stroke due to the effects of the heat wave increased considerably, there were 6 and 4 days respectively with water deficit, the deaths from heat waves and heat wave income also occurred in the summer of 2018 and 2017, but to a lesser extent.
Death from heat stroke is frequently manifested by the combined action of the water deficit on the body and the high climatic demand caused by the heat wave and the joint action of the different climate factors acting on the individual, as indicated in the realized studies.
In 2003, the National Center for Epidemiology in Spain attributed 6,400 deaths due to the heat wave. In France the official death toll in 2003 was established at 14,802 according to French information sources. In Portugal in Alentejo and Spain in Córdoba maximum temperatures above 46 degrees Celsius were registered on August 1, 2003. During that summer of 2003, extreme air temperatures caused 70,000 deaths across Europe, according to a study published in Comptes Rendus Biologies. On July 5, 2018, a new high temperature record was recorded for North Africa, in Algeria in the Sahara desert of 51.3ºC.
Table No 1. Frequency (F) of different urine flows for: water deficit, water scarcity, moderate normal urine flow and normal in the period 2017 – 2019.
|Water deficit||Water deficit||Water deficit||F||Water
|1.8-1.9||2.0 -2.1||2.2-2.3||2.4 –2.5||2.6- 2.9||`> 2.9|
|Winter||—||—||3||3||2 – 3||5||21||55|
|Spring||—||1||3||4||1 – 5||6||27||53|
|Summer||—||—||2||2||3 – 1||4||14||73|
|Autumn||—||2||1||3||2 – 6||8||28||51|
|Winter||1||—||1||2||2 – 2||4||20||56|
|Spring||–.||—||5||5||x – 3||3||13||70|
|Summer||—||—||6||6||3 – 10||13||19||55|
|Autumn||—||1||3||4||4 – 5||9||13||66|
|Spring||—||1||3||4||3 — 2||5||14||68|
|Summer||—||—||6||6||x – 1||1||14||73|