Climatic factors and their influence on the normal flow of urine in 2017-2019.
The barometric pressure is the factor that has the most influence, following in importance the temperature and the relative humidity, the one with the least effect was caused by the wind, each season is influenced by the characteristics of the climatic season and by the effect of the year. Climatic factors generally act together on the behavior of urine flow, the most frequent being the combined action of 2 and 3 factors, the least likely is the combination of 4 climatic factors, when a single factor acts, the dominant one is the barometric pressure in all its magnitudes: low, high, low moderate and high moderate. In the joint action of climatic factors, barometric pressure frequently manifests its influential activity. In turn, the different factors are influenced by the effect of climate change and global warming, causing them to become increasingly unstable and variable. Juan G. R., Juan Prado J. A. and Juan G. R. Climatic factors and their influence on the normal flow of urine in 2017-2019. Water and Irrigation Vol.: 11, No. 1: 43-46, July 15, 2020. Spain.
The human body is made up largely of water; the average constitutes 65% of body weight. This average value is calculated considering all ages and sexes, but it varies with age: in the elderly it is generally less, in babies it is around 80% of the weight, in men it is usually greater than in women. The kidneys contain approximately 83% water, the lungs 80%, the liver 74%, the brain 75%, the muscles 75%, the blood 80%, the skin 65% and the bones only below 15% according to anatomical and physiological studies of the Ministry of Health.
The kidneys make urine by filtering waste and excess water from the blood. The waste is called urea; the blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine reaches the bladder through two thin tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until you feel like going to the bathroom. The bladder expands when full and becomes smaller when empty according to the National Library of Medicine in the USA
Water is a solvent for minerals, water-soluble vitamins and nutrients, thus it acts on different metabolic functions of the individual, transports oxygen to the cells and constitutes the main component in many fluids such as saliva and sweat. Water is a thermal buffer to regulate the internal temperature of the body. Through water, numerous waste substances and toxic substances are eliminated through urine and sweat.
The World Health Organization recommends that one liter be taken daily for every 35 kilos of weight. Age, weather or sports practice can raise that amount.
On the other hand, there is who recommend drinking at least 2 liters of water a day to guarantee an adequate water supply, nor is it recommended to drink more water than necessary.
The study of urine flow considers 4 states: the body’s water deficit for values of 1.9 to 2.3 ml / min of flow, water scarcity with flows of 2.4-2.5 ml / min, moderate normal flow with values 2.7-2.9 ml / min and the normal flow of urine with values greater than 2.9 ml / min. The investigations carried out during 3 years 2017-2019, by Juan G.R., Juan Prado JA and Juan GR on the flow of urine and its relationship with climatic factors using an adequate water supply in Alicante, use different seasons of the year, winter, spring, summer and autumn. The recommended supply of water and liquids is 2 liters / day for winter, 2.1 liters / day for spring, 2.4 liters / day for summer and 2 liters / day for autumn.
Climatic factors were taken from AEMET data sources at the Climatic station El Altet located about 10 km away from where the investigations were carried out, daily evaluating the behavior of urine and influencing climatic factors: temperature, barometric pressure, humidity relative and wind speed.
The population’s exposure to heat is increasing due to climate change, and this trend will continue. On a global scale, it is observed that extreme temperature phenomena are increasing in terms of their frequency, duration and magnitude. Between 2000 and 2016, the number of people exposed to heat waves increased by approximately 125 million. Exposure to excessive heat has far-reaching physiological impacts on all humans, and often amplifies existing conditions and results in premature death and disability, according to WHO. In 2018, vulnerable people over the age of 65 experienced a record 220 million more heat wave exposures than the 1986–2005 on base line average, according to the WMO Statement on the State of Global Climate in 2019.
The hydric deficit and the shortage of water in the body are manifested at different times of the year depending on the characteristics of the climatic year and the physiology of the individual and the water supply, being generally more frequent during summer and spring.
Death from heat stroke is frequently manifested by the combined action of the water deficit in the body and the high climatic demand caused by the heat wave and the joint action of the different climate factors acting on the individual, as studies show made. From the analysis of the influence of climatic factors on urine flow from 2.9 ml / min, which is the most frequent, it is observed that the barometric pressure is the factor that has the most influence, following in importance the temperature and relative humidity, the one with the least effect was caused by the wind, each season is influenced by the characteristics of the weather season and by the effect of the year, see Table Nº 1.
Climatic factors generally act together on the behavior of urine flow, the most frequent being the combined action of 2 and 3 factors, the least likely is the combination of 4 climatic factors, when a single factor acts, the dominant one is the barometric pressure in all its magnitudes low, high, low moderate and high moderate. In the joint action of climatic factors, barometric pressure frequently manifested its influential activity. In turn, the different climatic factors are influenced by the effect of climate change and global warming that cause them to be increasingly unstable and variable, see Table Nº 2
Table No 1. Frequency of the influence of climatic factors on the normal flow of urine from 2.9 ml / min in the period 2017-2019
|years||º C||º C||%||%||%||hPa||hPa||hPa||hPa||Km/h||Km/h|
|Summer||— *||— *||2||15||31||18||45||–||5||3||–|
|Summer||— *||—- *||—||12||21||15||40||—||—-||—-||1|
|Summer||— *||— *||6||36||10||20||51||—||—||—||14|
* In summer low temperatures and moderate lows do not manifest, only normal, high and very high temperatures occur which, together with other climatic factors and greater daylight hours at the season, cause a greater climatic demand that is manifested with a decrease in the normal flow of urine from the urine and a greater frequency of the water deficit in the flow of urine, as a consequence of not supplying enough liquids to fight against the negative effect of heat waves. During the summer it is necessary to increase water consumption to 2.4 liters per day.
Table No 2. Frequency of the joint action of different climatic factors acting on the flow of urine in different seasons of the year during 2017-19
|ClimaticSeasons of the year||Joint action2 factors||Joint action3 factors||Joint action4 factors||Action of 1 predominant factor|