Juan G. R. Technical-economic assessment of irrigation techniques in sugarcane.
Water and Irrigation, Vol 2, No. 1:1-2, 2011, Spain.
The choice of irrigation technique in sugarcane must be determined by technical and economic analysis to clarify and compare in each case and in every region the feasibility of using either technique, analyzing different technical and economic indicators that enable evaluation of proposals under discussion, being essential to obtain a high profitability of the crop and a recovery short-term time of investments.
Sugar cane is irrigated by different irrigation methods: gravity or surface irrigation; by sprinkler: traditional techniques use high pressure and scope, irrigation machines of center pivot and irrigation machines frontal offset; by drip irrigation with surface drip irrigation techniques or underground; other irrigation methods and techniques of regional bit widespread. Of these methods most often used in the cultivation of sugar cane is the gravity irrigation with different irrigation techniques being the most widespread technique the use of furrow irrigation delivering constant or variable spending to the furrow, as well as employing the alternate furrow irrigation.
The choice of one or another irrigation technique for a given area must be analyzed by comparing technical and economic parameters to consider: the availability of water supply of surface and groundwater sources, the construction and operation of new sources of supply, the characteristics of soil and climate of each region sugarcane, topographical conditions, the availability or scarcity of labor, irrigation efficiency, oil and energy consumption, the hydraulic investments, the monetary fund available for investment and payment of interests of capital, overhead induced by the use of selected irrigation technique, assessment of economic losses caused by the introduction of the hydraulic whole, the operating costs of the hydraulic whole, repair costs and general running of the hydraulic set, operating costs of irrigation, economic benefits and recovery of investments.
From the foregoing it is observed that the choice of either irrigation technique is subject to a detailed economic technical analysis,it is necessary to compare in each case and in every region of the feasibility of using either technique, being necessary to obtain high profitability of the crop and a recovery time of investment in a short time. A computer program on the regionalization of irrigation techniques facilitates the proposal of the most appropriate irrigation techniques that should be analyzed for a given region or area, but finally the technical-economic study is who determines the most feasible irrigation technique to be used in any given area or region.
Technical economic analysis also considers the study and analysis of historical series, for the last 3 to 5 years: agricultural costs of sugar cane, crop yields achieved and prospective, the profits per hectare, crop profitability, the current and prospective price of sugar on the world market and the trends in the short and long term. It should also assess the current price situation and prospects: the inputs, the basic means necessary to intervene in the agricultural production process, the necessary labor and salary.Technical economic analysis is complemented by the use of technology agriculture measures of the crop.
The obtaining sugar of cane involves different processes, the first carried out in agriculture with the production of sugarcane and economic benefits and performance required for the farmer, the second process is done in the sugar mill getting raw sugar, economic benefits and performance required for the industrial sector, then a part of this sugar is consumed domestically or exported as raw sugar to importers located in different countries, another part of the crude is refined sugar, these measures require economic benefits and performance in relation to storage, transport, export costs for sugar and refined sugar.
Finally importers of sugar, pack, store and distribute the sugar that goes into the wholesale sector and requires new and profitable economic benefits for importers, later the sugar is sold by large and small enterprises and the same is acquired by the population and requires new revenue and profits for the commercial sector. As noted obtain sugar to marketing involves different steps and each requires economic benefits it is necessary that the economic benefits are determined in a rational way in each case.
According to the characteristics and objectives of the agro economic study them are classified as: level scheme, midetailed and detailed, then are compared the technical economic indicators of the irrigated treatments with the no irrigated treatments determining the economic effectiveness of new investments.