Evaluation soybean cultivars in combating climate change.

Avila C.J.M., Diaz G.A.F. and Paneque P.M.J. Evaluation soybean cultivars in combating climate change.

Water and Irrigation . Vol : 5, No. 1 : 7-10 , March, 2014 , Spain .

City University Filial Puerto Padre, Las Tunas University , juanac@ult.edu.cu

The results showed that in the conditions of soil and climate in study, cultivate Soy INCASOY – 24 was the one that was better suited to the adverse effects of climate change as it performed best agro productive ; the parameters number of pods per plant and the weight of 100 grains, were those who showed the greatest influence on crop yield . In order to evaluate the productive performance of three cultivars of soybean ( Glycine max ( L ) Merril ) , an investigation was carried out under field conditions in the CCS ” Otilio Diaz ” municipality Puerto Padre, Las Tunas province , in the period period from 28 December 2012 until 28 March 2013, a randomized block design was used , with three replications , in a brown carbonated fluffy sialítico soil . The parameters evaluated were , plant height , leaf number , stem diameter , height of the first pod, number of pods per plant , number of grains per pod , 100-grain weight and yield per hectare in t / ha.

Introduction
Cultivation of Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril) is exploited in different parts of the world and is a food that can contribute to the solution of nutritional problems in the tropics. The global importance of soy can be analyzed based on the use , production , quality , cost, and proteins, having favorable attributes . Soy has penetrated every time more as a key component of the diet for all types of livestock production , as previously used by five percent in chicken and pork and now use amounts to thirty percent, because it is a cheap protein and quality ( Corbera and Medina , 1999).
In addition to the biological value of soy as a food source legume, it status confers additional agricultural value , related to the improvement of soils through biological nitrogen fixation. According Figueredo et al. ( 2005), the nitrogen fixed from the atmosphere is used by microorganisms to build your cells , able to cover the biological fixation of charge up to 50% of nitrogen the plant needs.
In Cuba soy is known since 1904, but today is imported from Brazil , Argentina and Asia forcing devote substantial resources to purchase grain, ( Villalobar and Camacho , 2008).

Experimental setup
The experiment was conducted in areas of the CCS ” Otilio Diaz ” in the town of Puerto Padre, Las Tunas province , in the period from December 28, 2012 until March 28, 2013 , under field conditions . The culture under study was soy ( G.max ) , three cultivars evaluated . Design of randomized blocks with three treatments and three replications in plots of 4 m long and 3 m wide with a distance of 1 m were performed. The culture was grown on a brown carbonated fluffy sialítico soil  according to genetic classification of soils, Hernández et al. , 2001.
During the pilot phase were recorded at the meteorological station of Puerto Padre behavior of the main climatic variables, Table 1.

Table 1 . Climatic variables behavior

Variables / Months December

12

January

13

February

13

March

13

Temperature o C 25,7 25,2 23,5 24,5
Rainfall  (mm ) 19,0 45,5 21,0 35,0
Relative humidity%  % 76,2 75,4 73,3 74,8

-Seed from the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (INCA ) were employed , with 98 % germination .
-Number of pods per plant . Determined at 45 and 60 days after germination. Grains per pod , was performed at 60 days after germination
– Fitotecnia applied : As established by the instructional coach cultivation . ( MINAGRIC , 2008 ) Irrigation : survival irrigation was applied at the time of planting with the art sprinkler . Fertilizing : No fertilizer was applied. Harvest: Harvesting is done manually and exposed to the sun in order to achieve good drying.
– Method of analysis used to evaluate measurements : Statistical evaluations were processed by analysis of variance , means were compared using Tukey’s test for the 0.05 % significance , linear regression analysis of the main components of yield were performed .
Economic analysis: To perform an economic analysis took into account the special agricultural scale for the Basic Units of Cooperative Production , calculations were made from the cost of soybeans hectare.

Results and discussion .
New soybean cultivars were evaluated genetically improved for grain production in winter period.
Table No 2  results of the evaluation of plant height. During the first 45 days after seed germination behavior remained the same very homogeneous in the three cultivars , 60 days and blunt with the taller cultivars INCASOY – 24 e INCASOY – 2 showing the significant difference to INCASOY – 25 , which reached the lower height . It was corroborate the  studies by Ponce et al. , (2003 ) , which shows that there are significant differences between the cultivars evaluated .

Table No 2. Height of soybean plants .

 

Treatments

Plant height cm.

for 15 days

 

30 days

 

45 days

 

60 days

INCASOY -25 7,23 16,76 26,30 29,46 a
INCASOY -2 8,16 18,00 31,33 33,16 a b
INCASOY -24 8,60 16,86 31,73 35,13 b
CV (%) 8,89 6,35 9,30 5,68
 Stand E. 0,41 0, 33 1,60 1,07

 

In high bearing cultivars , height is a key requirement, which allows greater efficiency in production and also for mechanized and better chance to compete with other plants ( Mezquita , 1995).
According to Sharom (1996 ) the height of the plant is one of the most affected by day length. The soybean crop is very sensitive to photoperiod , which varies with latitude and time of year .

In table No 3 the results of the evaluation of the number of pods per plant , the height of the first pod and number of seeds per pod , in the number of pods per plant is observed at 45 days as the cultivar INCASOY – 24 has higher values, with significant differences on other cultivars , to 60 days prevails superiority of this cultivar on the rest of them , keeping the significant difference , too cultivar INCASOY – 2 shows significant differences with the cultivar INCASOY – 25 , which is the one with smaller number of pods per plant . These results agree with those obtained by other authors who reported an association between the number of pods and the yield ( Diaz -Leon , 1985; Deulofeu , 1997).

Table No 3. Number of pods per plant .

 

Treatments

Number of pods
by plants (u).
. First pod height

cm

Grains per
pod  (u)
45 días 60 días 60 días 60 días
INCASOY -25 11,93 a 23,00 a 3,33 1,76
INCASOY -2 14,56 a 28,93 b 3,70 2,03
INCASOY -24 25,43 b 36,46 c 3,86 2,03
CV (%) 8,25 4,92 6,83 8,57
 Stand E 0,82 0,83 0,14 0,09

Table No 4 is displayed as the weight of 100 grains the best results are obtained in the cultivar INCASOY – 24 , which differ significantly from the rest of the cultivars, also the INCASOY – 2 shows significant differences with INCASOY – 25 which was the lower results obtained , which coincides with the point raised by Diaz and Saucedo ( 2003) , Zamora and Abdou (2007) and generally matches the income received by Farias ( 1995)  who reports that in Cuba 100 soybeans weight varies between 11.6 and 23.5 g .
The grain weight per plot is observed as the cultivar INCASOY – 24 obtains superior results , with significant differences for the other cultivars , just as the INCASOY -2 significantly exceeds INCASOY – 25 that is who obtained minors results .

Table No 4. Structure Yields in the harvest (90 days).

Treatments Weight 100
grains ( g )
Weight of grains per plot

( g )

Yield

t/ha

INCASOY -25 14,80 a 3708,00 a 3,09 a
INCASOY -2 15,70 b 3751,00 b 3,12 b
INCASOY -24 17,30 c 4149,00 c 3,45 c
CV (%) 0,72 0,02 0,28
 Stand E. 0,06 0,66 0,05

Table No 5 is observed as to evaluate the parameters , plant height , stem thickness and number of leaves per plant, these have a low coefficient of regression , shows little correlation with crop yield . By contrast the number of pods per plant has a high regression coefficient , indicating that this parameter has a significant correlation with yield, the highest value of the regression coefficient is the weight of 100 grains, which has a correlation highly significant with agricultural yields.

Table No 5. Linear regression analysis of first order on crop yield .

Indicators Height of plants
cm
Thickness of the stems
(mm)
Number of leaves

(u)

Number of pods per plant (u)   Weight of 100 grains (g)
Coefficient Determination 46,32 16,82 6,70 84,01 90,87
Coef. Regression 0,68 0,41 0,25 0,91 0,95
Average 32,58 6,03 15,96 29,46 15,93
Std. Standard 3,04 0,44 2,81 5,94 1,10
 Significance NS NS NS ** ***

 

Conclusions

The cultivar INCASOY – 24 was the one showed better adapted to the adverse effects of climate change.

The parameters number of pods per plant and weight of 100 grains , were those who showed the greatest influence on crop yield .

 

http://www.aguayriego.com/2014/03/evaluacion-cultivares-de-soya-en-lucha-contra-el-cambio-climatico/

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