Avila C.J.M., Diaz G.A.F. and Paneque P.M.J. Evaluation soybean cultivars in combating climate change.
Water and Irrigation . Vol : 5, No. 1 : 7-10 , March, 2014 , Spain .
City University Filial Puerto Padre, Las Tunas University , firstname.lastname@example.org
The results showed that in the conditions of soil and climate in study, cultivate Soy INCASOY – 24 was the one that was better suited to the adverse effects of climate change as it performed best agro productive ; the parameters number of pods per plant and the weight of 100 grains, were those who showed the greatest influence on crop yield . In order to evaluate the productive performance of three cultivars of soybean ( Glycine max ( L ) Merril ) , an investigation was carried out under field conditions in the CCS ” Otilio Diaz ” municipality Puerto Padre, Las Tunas province , in the period period from 28 December 2012 until 28 March 2013, a randomized block design was used , with three replications , in a brown carbonated fluffy sialítico soil . The parameters evaluated were , plant height , leaf number , stem diameter , height of the first pod, number of pods per plant , number of grains per pod , 100-grain weight and yield per hectare in t / ha.
Cultivation of Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril) is exploited in different parts of the world and is a food that can contribute to the solution of nutritional problems in the tropics. The global importance of soy can be analyzed based on the use , production , quality , cost, and proteins, having favorable attributes . Soy has penetrated every time more as a key component of the diet for all types of livestock production , as previously used by five percent in chicken and pork and now use amounts to thirty percent, because it is a cheap protein and quality ( Corbera and Medina , 1999).
In addition to the biological value of soy as a food source legume, it status confers additional agricultural value , related to the improvement of soils through biological nitrogen fixation. According Figueredo et al. ( 2005), the nitrogen fixed from the atmosphere is used by microorganisms to build your cells , able to cover the biological fixation of charge up to 50% of nitrogen the plant needs.
In Cuba soy is known since 1904, but today is imported from Brazil , Argentina and Asia forcing devote substantial resources to purchase grain, ( Villalobar and Camacho , 2008).
The experiment was conducted in areas of the CCS ” Otilio Diaz ” in the town of Puerto Padre, Las Tunas province , in the period from December 28, 2012 until March 28, 2013 , under field conditions . The culture under study was soy ( G.max ) , three cultivars evaluated . Design of randomized blocks with three treatments and three replications in plots of 4 m long and 3 m wide with a distance of 1 m were performed. The culture was grown on a brown carbonated fluffy sialítico soil according to genetic classification of soils, Hernández et al. , 2001.
During the pilot phase were recorded at the meteorological station of Puerto Padre behavior of the main climatic variables, Table 1.
Table 1 . Climatic variables behavior
|Variables / Months||December
|Temperature o C||25,7||25,2||23,5||24,5|
|Rainfall (mm )||19,0||45,5||21,0||35,0|
|Relative humidity% %||76,2||75,4||73,3||74,8|
-Seed from the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (INCA ) were employed , with 98 % germination .
-Number of pods per plant . Determined at 45 and 60 days after germination. Grains per pod , was performed at 60 days after germination
– Fitotecnia applied : As established by the instructional coach cultivation . ( MINAGRIC , 2008 ) Irrigation : survival irrigation was applied at the time of planting with the art sprinkler . Fertilizing : No fertilizer was applied. Harvest: Harvesting is done manually and exposed to the sun in order to achieve good drying.
– Method of analysis used to evaluate measurements : Statistical evaluations were processed by analysis of variance , means were compared using Tukey’s test for the 0.05 % significance , linear regression analysis of the main components of yield were performed .
Economic analysis: To perform an economic analysis took into account the special agricultural scale for the Basic Units of Cooperative Production , calculations were made from the cost of soybeans hectare.
Results and discussion .
New soybean cultivars were evaluated genetically improved for grain production in winter period.
Table No 2 results of the evaluation of plant height. During the first 45 days after seed germination behavior remained the same very homogeneous in the three cultivars , 60 days and blunt with the taller cultivars INCASOY – 24 e INCASOY – 2 showing the significant difference to INCASOY – 25 , which reached the lower height . It was corroborate the studies by Ponce et al. , (2003 ) , which shows that there are significant differences between the cultivars evaluated .
Table No 2. Height of soybean plants .
|Plant height cm.
for 15 days
|INCASOY -25||7,23||16,76||26,30||29,46 a|
|INCASOY -2||8,16||18,00||31,33||33,16 a b|
|INCASOY -24||8,60||16,86||31,73||35,13 b|
|Stand E.||0,41||0, 33||1,60||1,07|
In high bearing cultivars , height is a key requirement, which allows greater efficiency in production and also for mechanized and better chance to compete with other plants ( Mezquita , 1995).
According to Sharom (1996 ) the height of the plant is one of the most affected by day length. The soybean crop is very sensitive to photoperiod , which varies with latitude and time of year .
In table No 3 the results of the evaluation of the number of pods per plant , the height of the first pod and number of seeds per pod , in the number of pods per plant is observed at 45 days as the cultivar INCASOY – 24 has higher values, with significant differences on other cultivars , to 60 days prevails superiority of this cultivar on the rest of them , keeping the significant difference , too cultivar INCASOY – 2 shows significant differences with the cultivar INCASOY – 25 , which is the one with smaller number of pods per plant . These results agree with those obtained by other authors who reported an association between the number of pods and the yield ( Diaz -Leon , 1985; Deulofeu , 1997).
Table No 3. Number of pods per plant .
|Number of pods
by plants (u).
|. First pod height
|45 días||60 días||60 días||60 días|
|INCASOY -25||11,93 a||23,00 a||3,33||1,76|
|INCASOY -2||14,56 a||28,93 b||3,70||2,03|
|INCASOY -24||25,43 b||36,46 c||3,86||2,03|
Table No 4 is displayed as the weight of 100 grains the best results are obtained in the cultivar INCASOY – 24 , which differ significantly from the rest of the cultivars, also the INCASOY – 2 shows significant differences with INCASOY – 25 which was the lower results obtained , which coincides with the point raised by Diaz and Saucedo ( 2003) , Zamora and Abdou (2007) and generally matches the income received by Farias ( 1995) who reports that in Cuba 100 soybeans weight varies between 11.6 and 23.5 g .
The grain weight per plot is observed as the cultivar INCASOY – 24 obtains superior results , with significant differences for the other cultivars , just as the INCASOY -2 significantly exceeds INCASOY – 25 that is who obtained minors results .
Table No 4. Structure Yields in the harvest (90 days).
grains ( g )
|Weight of grains per plot
( g )
|INCASOY -25||14,80 a||3708,00 a||3,09 a|
|INCASOY -2||15,70 b||3751,00 b||3,12 b|
|INCASOY -24||17,30 c||4149,00 c||3,45 c|
Table No 5 is observed as to evaluate the parameters , plant height , stem thickness and number of leaves per plant, these have a low coefficient of regression , shows little correlation with crop yield . By contrast the number of pods per plant has a high regression coefficient , indicating that this parameter has a significant correlation with yield, the highest value of the regression coefficient is the weight of 100 grains, which has a correlation highly significant with agricultural yields.
Table No 5. Linear regression analysis of first order on crop yield .
|Indicators||Height of plants
|Thickness of the stems
|Number of leaves
|Number of pods per plant (u)||Weight of 100 grains (g)|
The cultivar INCASOY – 24 was the one showed better adapted to the adverse effects of climate change.
The parameters number of pods per plant and weight of 100 grains , were those who showed the greatest influence on crop yield .