Juan G. R. Alertness on global depletion of groundwater reserves.
Water and Irrigation. Vol .: 6, No. 1: 17-18, July, 2015, Spain.
The depletion of water reserves in the world, not about a point problem, but widespread that already includes major aquifers in the world in the different continents and starts affecting developed and developing countries. The gradual depletion of aquifers causing a state of general alert that indicates that the path walked is unsustainable and must create the necessary conditions to restore sustainability, this situation tends to worsen with increased drought and temperature due to climate change influenced largely by the impact of human activity, as well as the excessive increase of the world population increases the need for the annual demand for water and the resources of the planet. It must be created in each country water institutions necessary to ensure the rational use of water and contribute to the sustainability of humanity and the planet Earth.
Much of the major groundwater basins of the Earth is being depleted at a rate that makes them unsustainable since given annually more water than they receive or whether they are not able to naturally replenished annually through contributions of rainfall, snow and other natural sources. Aquifers most affected are in the driest areas of the world where people use groundwater for human consumption, food production and consumer goods, the situation tends to worsen with increased drought and temperature as a result climate change influenced largely by the impact of human activity, as well as the excessive increase of the world population increases the need for the annual demand for water and the resources of the planet.
The depletion of water reserves in the world, not about a point problem, but widespread that already includes major aquifers in the world in the different continents and starts affecting developed and developing countries. The main aquifers are affected on all continents: Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and America, the report said studies conducted by the University of California, Irvine (UCI) data retrieved from NASA and Climatic Experiments satellites (GRACE) which met between 2003 and 2013, the principal investigator of the studies is Jay Famiglietti scientist at NASA.
In Africa most affected aquifers are in areas of low rainfall on the continent, such as the north of the country such as the Nubian aquifer system shared by four countries, the Sahara Northwest System and the basin Murzuk- Djado, in the central region of the African continent also shows some damaged aquifers. Asia being the largest continent has depleted aquifers and exhaustion phase in the Arabian Peninsula: Arabic aquifer, in India: aquifer basin of the Ganges-Brahmaputra, in Pakistan aquifer Indus Basin, in China: the system Aquifer North China and in the Asian region of Russia: the West Siberian basin.
In Europe most affected are the basins of Paris basin and the basin of the Russian platform in Europe. In North America they are damaged aquifers in the coastal plain of the Atlantic and the Gulf, as well as the aquifer system of the central valley of California. In South America is affected Guarani Aquifer System which is managed by 4 South American countries. In Australia the most affected is the Canning Basin aquifer.
The increase in demand for water in different aquifers results in the gradual depletion of these until they can not meet the water needs of the basin to which they are linked, making unsustainable recovery. The gradual depletion of major aquifers causes a state of general alert that indicates that the path walked is unsustainable and must create the necessary conditions to restore sustainability.
Global warming, climate change, carbon emissions, the uncontrolled growth of the world population, the impact of human activity, the interaction between these factors and the control plan to ensure the sustainability of the planet must be prioritized by the different nations and the United Nations. Global warming increases the average global temperature increase tends to thaw, heat waves and water demand of all life on Earth and the man. Climate change causing flood events and low rainfall that accelerate drought and water demand. Carbon emissions too very pollutants reach values hat increase the temperature of the planet, pollute the environment and contribute to a greater demand for water, so it is necessary to reduce its effects.
In the beginning of the 21st century, the world population was 6.1 million in 2000 and only 14 years have passed and now the world’s population now exceeds 7.3 million, ie which has increased by 20% with an overgrowth tends to increase the demand for water for drinking and food production and resources of the planet in the short and long term, so it is essential to birth control in different countries, to achieve a sustainable balance of humanity. The impact human activity contributes to the shortage of rainfall annually because are cut down in the world more than 7 million hectares of forests. The control plan sustainability of the planet must be organized by the United Nations and must be guaranteed by governments of different countries.
Another aspect to consider is that water should be controlled by state institutions that the management bodies are not politicized and must make training specialists, to control and manage water reserves aquifers and all surface and underground water resources in each country, where the reserves, water dynamics and demand in each region should be controlated, the authorization drilling, water use and management of water resources will control will be in charge of that managing body and its institutions. Water is a common good of humanity, should be created in each country water institutions necessary to ensure: the study, management, resource management and research to make a more rational use of water possible, which contributes sustainability of humanity and the planet Earth.