Juan G.R. The water problem in the Valencian Community and Murcia is complicated.
Water and Irrigation. .: Vol 5, No. 1: 29-30, September, 2014, Spain.
The water problem in the Valencian Community and Murcia in 2014 continues in a difficult situation. In the Jucar basin belonging to Valencian Community reserve water stored is 1392 hm3 which represents 42% of the storage capacity. The Tajo Segura is also in critical condition, because the reservoirs are refilling guarantee with minimum water capacity of 381 hm3 -22% for the reservoir Buen Día, and 238 hm3 -29% for the reservoir Entrepeñas. It is considered that the drought has damaged more than 180 thousand hectares, the economic losses are estimated at over 350 million euros. Should
must to build a new transfer from the Ebro river, but this time is necessary to build a lot cheaper than the approved transfer in 2001 considering the contribution of water that make the existing desalination plants.
The water problem in the Valencian Community and Murcia continues in a difficult situation, being even more critical in the province of Alicante with annual rainfall ranging from 300 mm in the coastal area up to 600 mm in the interior. Currently accumulated precipitation in the province of Alicante is evaluated very dry to extremely dry for a period of less rainfall in the past 100 years. In the Jucar basin belonging to the Valencian Community reserve water stored is 1392 hm3 which represents 42% of the storage capacity. However, in the rest of Spain reservoir capacity is still a normal year as water reservoirs to date is 37442 hm3 constitutes 68% of the reservoir capacity, which is above average for a period of 10 years.
The law of the Ebro River transfer, which would distribute its waters in the Valencian Community, the region of Murcia and Almeria through the National Hydrological Plan was approve in 2001. In June 2004 the Ebro river transfer was disapprove and as alternative water supply plan, the construction of desalination plants was approved, but so far there are only working 4 plants, the rest do not work or are yet to build, farmers reject the use of desalinated water by the high cost of m3 of water as desalination plants are large investments and consume energy-intensive that greatly expensive irrigation costs.
Moreover the Tajo Segura building which was completed in 1979 ensures a supply of water for water Deficient Communities Murcia and Valencia, as well as some municipalities of Andalucia, this transfer also is in critical situation as reservoirs ensuring the transfer of the Tajo-Segura, meet minimum water capacity of 381 hm3-22 % for the reservoir Buen Dia and 238 hm3 and -29% for the reservoir Entrepeñas. The governments of Murcia and Valencia, with the irrigators in both communities, make a document drafted last spring with the intention of defending the Tajo-Segura. The maintenance of the Tajo-Segura and safe and sustainable farming is a strategic and socioeconomic prime target for the state, whose presence should be ensured.
As the guarantee of water in Valencia and the Murcia is observed becomes increasingly complicated as to achieve the objectives is needed to ensure many external and internal factors, which together with the climatic, economic and political variability, require certain strategies. This drought has damaged crops in both upland communities affecting almond plantations, olives, grapes, citrus and some fruit and cereal crop, livestock and beekeeping also is affecting the final yield of some crops irrigated, is considered to have been damaged over 180 thousand hectares, the economic losses are estimated at over 350 million euros. Again the economic effects of drought repeat, should assess that the continuing drought accumulated losses are greater than the investments required to ensure the required water demand.
It should also be noted that the effect of climate change and the excessive action of man, greatly contribute to increased desertification, and thousands of hectares have disappeared as a result of deforestation and burning of trees, it is necessary to make an ambitious plan reforestation in the fight against desertification, climate change and drought. As a result of the drought, there are overexploitation of aquifers in some regions and further cost increases for the extraction of water by the lowering of the water table.
Currently the province of Almeria that is also located in the Southeast Spanish and is part of Andalucia region, has economic effects as a result of drought and Almería suggests that requires immediate assistance with almond rainfed crops and livestock, so you need to further increase the economic losses from drought in the southeast Spanish.
Heavy rains in March 2013 and the heavy rains in the first decade of April in Spain increased the level of water in the river beds and the danger of flooding, which caused the overflow of the major country’s rivers such as the Ebro, Duero, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Tajo many tributaries in different watersheds. A year ago the surplus waters of Spanish rivers would go mainly to the sea, but there are other Spanish basins with water deficit, reflecting that must be evaluated accurately how to do with the excess water, and that is not justified two Spanish Communities that make great contributions to the national economy on tourism and agriculture, have many difficulties in ensuring water. Should must to build a new transfer from the Ebro river, because this river can provide surplus water, but this time you have to build a much more economical than the transfer approved in 2001 considering the contribution of water that make the existing desalination plants.