Juan G. R. and Juan P. J. A. The melting at the poles and global warming.
Water and Irrigation Vol .: 7, No. 1: 9-10, March, 2016, Spain.
Changes in air temperature and oceans affect the melting ice due to heat exchange between ice, water and air. Scientists observe the changes of global warming on the volume of the ice mass, which provides more information on the dynamics of ice mass in different watersheds that are part of Antarctica. During the winter in the Arctic temperatures drop to zero, the ice recovers to normal values, but each time the ice is thinner and less resistant, which means that in the summer this layer fracture, is fraying easily and reduce its size and thickness. The continued increase in carbon emissions in the atmosphere will cause disappears much of the world’s fresh water ice.
Global warming has increased the temperature of the air, land and oceans and as a result has accelerated the melting at the poles and in different regions of the world that have glaciers, causing the continuous increase in the level of seas and oceans. Scientists agree that changes in air temperature and oceans affect the melting ice due to heat exchange between ice, water and air. To continue the thaw at the end of the century, it will disappear much of the world’s fresh water ice.
The North Pole is located in the Arctic Ocean and is surrounded by continents and islands. The South Pole is located on the Antarctic continent which is surrounded by the Southern Ocean and this in turn borders the Pacific, the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The largest reserves in the world are ice on the Antarctic continent. This region has huge reserves of ice and summer temperature is at least 25 degrees Celsius, the South Pole is colder than the North Pole.
Global warming occurs as a result of the high emission of greenhouse gases, the great impact of human activity, climate change and the interaction between them, plus various stages by other natural phenomena such as El Niño, volcanic eruptions, high wind speed and solar storms. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere by natural causes ranged from 180 to 290ppm, but today Co2 emissions on the planet beyond the 380ppm and continue to increase.
The ice of Antarctica has an average thickness of 1,900 meters, surpassing in some places 4.000metros and occupies an average volume of ice of 25 million cubic kilometers. CryoSat ESA satellite carries a radar altimeter and noted in West Antarctica increased ice loss each year. The Eastern part of the continent is in equilibrium, as the ice lost in the periphery is offset by gotten inside. The biggest problem of global warming melting is due to the action of the ocean on the ground line between the transition of land ice and floating ice.
From measurements of the Antarctic ice made by the satellite GRACE NASA and the GOCE satellite from the European Space Agency, found a decrease in the ice mass during the period analyzed, scientists observe the changes produced in the volume of the ice mass, which provides more information on the dynamics of ice mass in the different basins of the continent, for scientific purposes the ice of Antarctica is divided into watersheds.
The Arctic ice cap is composed of sea ice formed by the freezing of sea water and is floating and has a thickness of a few tens of meters. The layer of floating ice covering the Arctic Ocean in summer has a surface covered by ice only 4.41 million square kilometers and has been reduced by 1.81 million Km2 when compared with the period 1980-2001 which was 6.22 million km2, which provoke that the surface ice of the North Pole is in him area reduced in the last 40 years.
Since the beginning of this century the increasingly warm waters of the Arctic Ocean make ice it more difficult to endure, so that rhythm is moving towards what could potentially be an ice-free Arctic in summer around 2040, according Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency US.
In its annual cycle, the Arctic ice grows in winter and contracts in summer reaching a minimum that normally occurs in mid-September. As a result of high temperatures that are occurring on the planet, the minimum annual ice extent is not always the same. When you return to the winter and temperatures drop to zero, the ice recovers to the normal values, but each time the ice is thinner and less resistant, which means that in the summer the same fracture and melting easily.