Australia hydraulic development requires more investment and economic studies.

Juan G. R. Australia hydraulic development requires more investment and economic studies.
Water and Irrigation. Vol 4, No. 1: 9-10, April, 2013, Spain.

Australia has made great efforts in sustainable water development in the country, but droughts and floods threaten future food crises, it is necessary to more accurately assess potential water resources and available as well as their demand for different types of users, the country has lost billions of dollars as a result of drought 1998 – 2010 and has invested heavily in the sustainable development of water resources, but still need to invest many billions of dollars to achieve the desired objectives. Is essential to make economic technical studies of hydraulic development of different country places and execute works that possess more feasible technical and economic indicators that allow rapid recovery of investments.

In the 1998-2010 period, Australia experienced its worst drought in its history. The drought began in 1998, in 2002 there were data from the worst drought in the last 100 years, the situation of water scarcity is complicated even more in 2006 and that year was an event with a probability of occurrence of once every 1,000 years, this drought was called Millennium Drought. In 2002 for the first time runoff from it main river, the Murray, was insufficient to reach the sea. During this stage crops: rice, cotton, food grains and greatly reduced or lost, decreasing rainfall, livestock left without grass, forcing many farmers to reduce the number of heads of their ranches. Half of the sheep died or had to be sacrificed. Tens of thousands of farmers lost their crops and their animals much of which contributed greatly to the increase the prices of agricultural products and the decline in agricultural exports. There were big fires and big terregales.

As a result of climate change since 1950 annual rainfall has decreased by fifteen percent while average temperatures in the southeast of the continent rose between 0.3 and 0.6 degrees Celsius. At low precipitation and evaporation increases higher temperatures, reduce the flow of rivers and droughts become more intense and more frequent, it is predicted that the water available in the basin of the Murray-Darling will decrease over seventy percent the mouth of the Murray in 2030. Australia is the driest continent in the world, which occur a great climatic variability it has mainly a climate:tropical, subtropical, temperate and arid, the latter with an average rainfall of less than 400 mm, occupies about 44% of total area, much of the west, south and center, the country has long periods of extreme drought with torrential rains that caused major catastrophes.

The Australian Government through the Millennium drought, designed a plan of water development measures to cope with drought, reduce pollution of rivers and try to achieve sustainable production of food and fiber, including economic, technological, legislative and educational mesuares. Policies were developed for water saving and increasing non-conventional sources of supply, are promoted tanks for rainwater harvesting, is promoting the treatment and reuse of treated water. Between 2002 and 2008 urban water use per capita declined by 37 percent.

Australia decided to restore its rivers and wetlands reduced by about thirty percent withdrawals in the basin of the largest river Murray River and the Darling River the more longest,  which is tributary of the Murray. The Murray River is one of the major rivers of Australia, has a very irregular flow with an average annual value of 450 m3/year, the specific flow rate is 0.41 litre/second/km2. The Murray river contributes very little water of the Indian Ocean as its waters are mainly used for irrigation of crops and for the consumption of the city of Adelaide. It has been used millions of dollars to buy water rights from farmers, not to use that water for irrigation but apply in restoring freshwater ecosystems of the country.

The drought ended in 2010, with storms, torrential rains and floods. Unexpectedly on the east coast of Australia on October 13, 2012 snow fell despite the spring weather, the roads were formed layers of snow about a foot, the local emergency services had to remove fallen trees and restore power lines The snow melted quickly and gradually increased above zero temperatures. After several days of heavy rain, 23/02/2013 local authorities remain alert for possible overflow of 15 rivers in the state of New South Wales. The most affected area is the McLeay Valley where at least 10,000 people, mostly farmers and ranchers, have been cut, according to a report by the Australian Emergency Service.

Australia has made great efforts in sustainable water development in the country, but droughts and floods threaten future food crises, it is necessary to more accurately assess potential water resources and available as well as their demand for different types of users, the country has lost billions of dollars as a result of drought 1998 – 2010 and has invested heavily in the sustainable development of water resources, but still need to invest many billions of dollars to achieve the desired objectives. Is essential to make economic technical studies of hydraulic development of different country places and execute works that possess more feasible technical and economic indicators that allow rapid recovery of investments.

Investment devoted to irrigation, drainage, reservoirs, transfers, hydraulic assemblies, desalination, wastewater treatment, supply to cities, towns protection against floods, corrections rivers, groundwater recharge, other water projects, infrastructure development and water management, protection of watersheds through reforestation are measures for sustainable development of water resources and their management, water investments are high and it is very important that the works have been performing high economic returns and investments recover in a short time. Water development measures must be accompanied by works of basic and applied research in order to obtain more precise answers to the typical conditions of the Australian continent.

http://www.aguayriego.com/2013/04/el-desarrollo-hidraulico-de-australia-requiere-mas-inversiones-y-estudios-economicos/

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