Juan G.R. Climate change and the impact of human activity.
Water and Irrigation. Vol .: 5, No. 1: 35-37, November, 2014, Spain.
Climate change, global warming, carbon emissions, the impact of human activity and the increase of the world population are different factors that can affect life on Earth, but these are very interrelated and if no act in harmony can gradually provoke the destruction of life in it. Climate change is clear: changes in weather patterns, melting and raising the level of the sea waters are causing the disappearance of small island states. Global warming is real and is progressive, carbon emissions are currently 40,000 million tons. The destructive effect of the human species is very clear, have gone 50% of animal species, deforestation and environmental pollution are increasing. World population has tripled in just 74 years, has increased the consumption of water, energy, food, natural resources and human waste, which compromise the sustainability and future capacity of the planet.
The consequences of climate change on agricultural production are still under analysis, extreme events such as heat waves, extreme cold, prolonged droughts, intense and enduring rain, flooding, have negative effects on agricultural production. Climate change is evidenced by the change and shifting rainfall patterns they became very intense but short duration, that cause or exacerbate flooding and disaster situations or water stress and drought. Climate change seems faster than many expected, so the consequences are immediate, because what is threatening the survival of our future generations.
The melting of the North Pole continues inexorably and ice sinks further into the Arctic Ocean each year and occurs at a higher rate as a result of global warming, also Greenland and Antarctica are melting phase which results in together many nations that are island states such as Tuvalu, Kiribati, Niue and Nauru in Oceania, fight for survival as they gradually sink below sea level, due to increased tidal level, ever higher. Deforestation caused by man also has a negative impact on climate change, it has been shown that major changes in vegetable cover affect the presence of rainfall.
Global emissions of carbon dioxide, the main causing to global warming will reach levels of 40.000 million tons this year. The influence of human activity on climate change and environmental pollution is clear.It is expected that CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels will rise by 2.5 percent in 2014, representing 65 percent above 1990 levels, the reference year of the Kyoto Protocol. China, United States, European Union and India are the largest emitters, together accounting for 58 percent of emissions.It is necessary sustained reductions in CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels if we want to limit global climate change.
Moreover human activity is primarily responsible in just 44 years, the disappearance since 1970, over 50% of animal species in the world, which together with poaching and discrimination of animals, birds and fish, aggravates the situation. Latin America is in the lead, as it is the region of the world that has destroyed more animal species. Biodiversity is declining in both temperate and tropical regions, but the decrease is greater in the tropics. Need to stop the extermination of animal species and protect its demise. In the Northern Hemisphere contains more than 80% of the World population so that changes that occur in this hemisphere largely reflect the development of climate change and destructive human activity on the environment.
During summer 2014, in the Pacific has occurred great cyclonic activity with a total of 16 shocks between tropical depressions, tropical storms and typhoons, while in the Atlantic has been only 6; in the Indian Ocean has been a very active monsoon rains. New volcanic eruptions took place: 2 regions of Asia, 2 in Europe, 2 in America. Seismic activad expressed primarily in countries of the Pacific Ring of Fire, with moderate seismic activity in Asia, Europe and America.
Rainstorms, typhoons, monsoons and cyclones are the major cause of flooding and summer floods have affected more strongly in the Northern Hemisphere in Asia and Europe and to a lesser extent in America and Africa. In Asia there have been major floods in India, Pakistan, China, Philippines, Japan and Vietnam, in Europe, especially the most affected are France, Sweden, Denmark, Croatia and Romania. In North America the major floods were recorded in New York in the United States, Baja California and Monterrey in Mexico. In Central America, bad weather hit Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In North Africa were affected by the rains and floods 55 provinces in 15 states in Sudan.
There are regions in the world with large populations that have a high fertility rate affecting sustainable balance of the human race on the planet, with mean values of 2.7 to 3.4 children / woman for India and Pakistan and 4.0 to 6.0 children / woman for the vast majority of African countries, although in the latter there are some extreme continent countries with less than 3.0 and more than 6.0 values, it is necessary to take birth control measures to reduce these values. In 1940 the Earth had about 2300millones inhabitants and today have over 7.1 billion, have already tripled that figure, if we group the planet in 3 towns: China, India, Europe and the rest of the Asian countries and the people of Africa to the Americas, there are 3 different centers with a population around each existed on the planet in 1940, the difference is that only have passed 74 years, ¿to this rate of fertilization which will be the prospects for sustainability of Planet Earth later this century?
The pressure of demand on the needs of human beings on the planet, beyond what it can replenish. The consequences are a reduction in the amount of natural resources, higher accumulation of waste to which it can absorb or recycle, the carbon dioxide production is greater than the Earth can absorb. We demand more natural resources of the Earth, which is compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.