Juan G. R. Climate change, current and short-term effect.
Water and Irrigation, Volume 1, Nº 2: 3-4, 2010, Spain.
Climate change is part of the changes or adjustments that makes the planet earth to maintain the balance of different factors or natural forces, at the present time climate change has been mainly characterized by increased temperature, which favours: the meltdown, floods, fires and other weather conditions, but the action disorderly of man in relation with the environment, may accelerate climate change through deforestation, large inputs of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons and other gases into the atmosphere and oceans.
It is predicted that in the short term, during this century, a gradual increase in temperature and an increase in harmful side effects on other natural phenomena, so it requires a more systematic control of all those causes that may affect the coexistence man with the environment and the planet earth.
The ice of the Arctic Ocean covered an area of 7.8 million square kilometres in 1980, gradually losing its share, reaching historic levels of 4.2 million square kilometres in 2007, today defrosting action continuous. The deterioration of continental glaciers and ice sheets in different regions of the world is causing the gradual rise in sea level. The glaciers of the Svalbard islands, an archipelago north of Norway at about 1000 kilometres from the North Pole are under study since 1967 and recorded a loss of height of 16 meters in 40 years with an average decline of the ice layer 40 centimetres per year.
Moreover global warming also affects the South Pole, in 2009 broke off and broke up a layer of Antarctic ice about 14 000 square kilometres and gigantic blocks of ice scattered across the Southern Oceans, the gradual melting of the Antarctica in some areas continues. The last glacial period until the present time about 20,000 years have elapsed, there has been an increase in temperature of about 4 degrees, which contributes to the melting of the poles, despite the predictions are that within the next 100 years, action man polluting will accelerate climate change and temperature rise in 4 degrees Celsius, at a rate of 0.4 degrees in 10 years. As a result of climate change, some atolls of several islands of Polynesia with little elevation above sea level, generally less than two feet of elevation, have been disappearing in increasing the level of water in the oceans. The increase in temperature increases the temperature of seas and oceans, thus accelerating the defrosting of the Polar Regions. As the temperature increases will also melts the islands which is under the ice will come back.
The contribution of more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as a result of little control over the excessive development of humanity, has caused an increase in the temperature of the atmosphere, in turn part of the carbon dioxide that the atmosphere can not hold is absorbed by the oceans, but when the amount absorbed by this gas is high, the water is acidified considerably what results in that many marine species can not produce the shell that protects them, so that breaks the biological balance and food chain significantly affects the sea, also the increase of temperature and acidity of seas and oceans, help to accelerate or reduce the level of reproduction of many fish species, marine animals and aquatic plants, further affecting the biological equilibrium in the water.
Another factor that influences climate change it is the great clearing of forests made by the man in different countries and continents which affects mainly the increase in air temperature and reduced carbon dioxide demand by the plants, as there are fewer forest mass favours the greenhouse effect. Solar activity is another factor to consider when studying climate change because the sun is a major source of energy of planet earth and the changes in the sun can influence the earth and its climate.
By studying climate change must take into consideration the changes that have taken the ozone layer and its impact on the planet earth, and the deterioration of the ozone layer due mainly to the action of chlorofluorocarbons and other gases produced by industrial activity of man. The hole in the ozone layer in 2007 was 25 million square kilometres in 2008 increased its size with an area of 27 million square kilometres, have been recently taken some steps to counter these effects, eliminating million tons of harmful chemical agents, have produced positive results but are still insufficient.
Climate change is part of the changes or adjustments that makes the planet earth to maintain the balance of different factors or natural forces such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, ocean currents, the activity of tornadoes and cyclones, weather, but the action of man in relation with the environment, can accelerate climate change by large inputs of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons and other gases into the atmosphere and oceans, as well as the deforestation, other polluting activities, so it is necessary more systematic monitoring of the various countries and international institutions of all those causes that may affect the coexistence of man with the environment and the planet earth.