Juan G. R. and Juan P. J. A. Effects of global warming in 2015.
Water and Irrigation Vol .: 7, No. 1: 4-6, January, 2016, Spain.
Global warming causes in 2015 mainly as a result of greenhouse gas emissions, influenced by the effects of El Niño and the impact of human activity, has manifested itself in different forms that consider scenes of great climatic instability include: increases in surface temperature of the Earth and ocean water, heat waves, drought, floods, overflowing rivers, increased storm systems in the Pacific, increased formation of tornadoes and large fire activity . The global average temperature has risen 1.1 C in 155 years, the temperature increase is registered in Europe, Asia, Oceania, South America, North America and parts of Africa, so this is a great challenge.
During the summer months of June, July and August 2015 the highest average global temperatures observed since 1880. These high temperatures occurred both on the surface of the Earth and the seas and oceans. Large areas in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and part of the Atlantic Ocean have recorded record high temperatures, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Global warming occurs primarily as a result of greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial revolution born in Britain, it extends to Europe and the United States, then the rest of the world. The preindustrial stage covers the period of 1760-1840, at the beginning of 1860 in global average global temperature was 13.6 degrees Celsius and currently is around 14.7 C or whether it has already risen 1.1 C in 155 industrial stage years. Since 2000 there have been 9 of the 10 of the warmest years, so this is a great challenge.
Much of the published studies show that global warming, heat waves and climate change have been increasing mainly due to the impact of human activity, because that phenomena have expressed exponentially as population growth world, it is more economical to take the necessary measures to dampen global warming to let this be manifested with greater intensity and causing more human, material and financial losses.
In earlier times, it has also been a global warming of the Earth due mainly to the increased intensity of sunlight. This warming the planet generated by spontaneous emission of gases, especially CO2 and methane that also produce the greenhouse effect, which tends to raise the temperature further. Since the late 90s, inside the polar ice has been studied by specialists and discovered that there were four major climate cycles on Earth, as well as smaller variations. Although changes in these data are known, it is not clear yet to what extent affected by global warming.
El Niño in 2015 is considered very active and is another factor that contributes to global warming. El Niño is a warming of the Eastern Pacific Ocean primarily along the Ecuador and its hinterland, occurs between cycles of 3-8 years, but this hot water is causing different effects such as: heavy rainfall, floods, droughts, fires and stronger typhoons in the Western Pacific. WMO projected that Pacific temperatures increase 2 ° C above normal and experts believe that these conditions have led to an increase in storm systems in the Pacific. The rains caused by El Niño floods caused by major flooding rivers in Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, around 150,000 people have been displaced. The prognosis of The Niño of Australian Meteorology Office, said that the sea surface temperatures in the Pacific region were the highest since 1997.
For the first time in its history, Beijing has declared red alert for the most serious air pollution is the scale of four, measures have been taken due to heavy smoke enveloping the capital of China, the official Xinhua news agency reported. These days, the concentration of harmful particles in the capital shot up to 666 micrograms per cubic meter, the levels recorded in the vicinity of Tiananmen Square were 240 micrograms / m3. WHO recommends a maximum of 25 micrograms per cubic meter.
As a result of climate change have reduced levels of polar ice and glaciers in many different regions of the world, causing sea level rise affecting the existence of many islands and coastal areas reducing in countries vulnerable. Climate change is characterized by prolonged droughts and heavy rains that alter weather patterns, causing major disasters and floods, rising global temperatures, melting, rising sea levels and increased tropical storm activity and cyclones.
Hurricane Patricia, was formed in 2015 in the Pacific ocean, is extremely dangerous, Category 5, reached sustained winds of 305 kilometers per hour with gusts of 380 kilometers winds and a minimum pressure of 879hPa, favored their activity by increased water temperature and heating the air. High temperatures in the United States favored the occurrence of tornadoes, storms and floods, more than 25 tornadoes were reported during the disaster, observed the unusual heat wave contributed to the formation of tornadoes affected states in central, south and southeast. December in the UK has been the warmest and the wettest month in the last century, with an average temperature of 7.9 degrees and 230 mm rainfall, flooding has mainly affected the north of England and Scotland.
The drought affected intensive northern and southern hemisphere, is manifested in different regions of America, Africa, Asia, Europe and Australia in the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan and India, drought has been accompanied by heat waves by increasing temperatures, with values above 40 degrees Celsius maximum temperatures in some areas reaching 45 degrees above levels which has influenced the death of over 2,500 people in India and 1500 in Pakistan, India the maximum temperature reached 48 degrees. In Spain the longest heat wave, from 27 June to 22 July, with maximum temperatures reaching 44.9 °in Zaragoza airport. In Venezuela the maximum temperature was 43’6 °, in southern California in September the maximum temperature exceeded 40 degrees.
The phenomena of drought, floods, global warming and climate change are very interrelated, which often causes the occurrence of an event depends on the manifest form of one or more other events. The impact of human activity influences the positive or negative effect on the occurrence of these factors, so it is necessary that the impact of human activity by the weight it has, forms part of the balance sheets of global warming and climate change.