Juan G. R. Effect of drought 2012 in India.
Water and Irrigation. Volume: 3, No. 1: 15-16, November, 2012, Spain.
Insufficient monsoon rains have triggered drought in India in 2012, decreased crop yields and drove up food prices, which have reduced the purchasing power in the country, where more than half of the population depends on the rural economy, affecting the demand for all types of goods, the accumulated rainfall at the beginning of autumn in many parts of the country were already below 20% of normal. The monsoon in India is vital for almost 55 percent of the country’s arable land being cultivated rainfed, economic losses due to drought is estimated to exceed 30 billion dollars.
India, one of the largest producers and consumers of the world with a population of around 1,200 million and 62 million hectares of irrigation, was affected by a drought for the last time in 2009, forcing the country to import sugar and soared globally prices. India is a federation which is subdivided into 28 states, six union territories and a National Capital Territory. There are 629 districts administered by their respective State Governments and Union Territories. New Delhi confirmed the drought of 2012, as monsoon rains are considered poor if they fall below 90 percent of the average of 50 years. Weak monsoon rains that began in June 2012 pushed up food prices and reduced purchasing power in India, where more than half of the population depends on rural economy, impacting on demand for all goods , the accumulated rainfall in many regions of the country in early fall were already below 20% of normal, the economic losses due to drought is estimated to exceed 30 billion dollars. The monsoon in India is vital for almost 55 percent of agricultural land in the country that do not have irrigation. The four-month season from June to September monsoon accounts for 75 percent of annual rainfall in the country, and half of that volume often falls in June and July.
At a press conference, the director of Climate Prediction and Adaptation of the World Meteorological Organization Mannava Sivakumar said that various agencies of the United Nations promotes the creation of policies to address the drought. Sivakumar explained that according to the data available to WMO, in India the affected area increases to 70% of the territory, while 60% of the U.S. currently suffering drought, the UN expert said that the situation of current drought being experienced in India will have consequences for the country’s food stocks over the next year, while recalling that a drought in India is a problem for agriculture, since 70% of the water consumed in the destination country is agriculture.
Declining harvests in major grain producing countries affected by drought as such as United States, Russia, India, China, Ukraine, Eastern Europe and Mexico, have skyrocketed the price thereof. World production of cereals and grains not enough to cover the increase in consumption in China and India, so that prices will continue to rise throughout the year. Therefore, there will be a direct impact on the price of basic foods like bread and cattle on feed, a highly punished by previous crisis. The impacts of the trend of the use of biofuels which use several hundred million tons of corn oil and food market, to devote to the production of ethanol and biodiesel, which also causes the increase in grain prices , which carry with them the increased prices of the derivatives of the flour and the increased costs of production of all types of meat: pigs, poultry and cattle, eggs and dairy products.
The growth rate is a factor that determines the magnitude of the demands that the country needs to meet its population, in relation to infrastructure such as roads, schools, hospitals, homes, businesses and industries as well as resources such as food , water, energy, labor force. According to the population census of 2011 in India, for every 1,000 men and 940 women living and the population density is of 382 inhabitants per square kilometer. The birth rate and population growth in India are 2.1% and 1.3% respectively, which are considered high, so that the country must take steps to reduce these indicators, in order to decrease the consumer demand for the future population.
Early in the fall of 2012 in the state of Assam located in the northeastern region of the country were affected 17 districts by the overflow of the river Brahmaputra which rises in the mountains of Tibet, which caused 27 dead and 1.5 million homeless. At least 25 people have died and hundreds of villages have been flooded in southeastern India due to heavy rains at the beginning of November after Cyclone Nilam, from the Bay of Bengal, which made landfall in India and sparked several days heavy rains in the southeastern region of Andhra Pradesh, according to local press have destroyed hundreds of homes and damaged 250,000 hectares of crops. India has 28 states and the floods have affected a very specific area so the level of the country still ongoing drought.