Worldwide development of irrigated area in the main countries.

Juan G. R., Juan P. J. A. Worldwide development of irrigated area in the main countries.

 Water and Irrigation Vol .: 6, No. 1: 32-35, November, 2015, Spain.

 In the mid 20th century, the world irrigated area was 121 million hectares, in the early 21st century was 277 million / ha, in 2012 the world’s irrigated area was 324 million / ha, the countries further development have achieved in irrigation in the world are: India-67, China-65, US-26 and Pakistan with 20 million hectares respectively, the sum of the irrigated areas of these four countries account for 55% of the world’s irrigated area, another group of countries with more than 6 million / ha is composed of: Iran, Indonesia, Mexico and Thailand and represent 9% of the total. There are 17 countries which each has more than 3.5 million / ha of irrigation. The demand for land, water and food continuously increases by the increase in world population, to achieve sustainability of the planet earth, mankind, the animal and plant species, is need a proper balance of resources demanded by humanity and the growth unsustainable global population.

The history of irrigation development dates back to the ancient civilizations that arose in the fertile valleys of the river: Yangtze, Hoang Ho, Indo Nile, Euphrates, Amu Darya, Syr Darya and others. From that time until today they have preserved many irrigation works and numerous documents that show the age and importance of irrigation.

Egypt claims to have the oldest dam in the world built over 5000 years ago. The Babylonian dynasty enacted the so-called Code of Hammurabi 4000 years ago it reveals that the existence of these people depended on irrigation. In China the famous Tu-Hiang dam was built about 4000 years ago and currently irrigates a large area of areas devoted to rice. Egypt, China, India and Middle East lands irrigated by surface irrigation, over 4,000 years ago and from there it spread to Africa and Europe. From 2500 years ago in Iran underground tunnels are used to collect groundwater for irrigation. In Latin the various indigenous cultures had developed complex irrigation systems. The oldest known pre-Hispanic dam is the Purrón dating from 2,700 years ago, is located in Mexico, the first hydraulic systems Peru Chavin culture dating from 2500 years ago.

In the early 19th century, the irrigated area in the world was about 8 million hectares, most irrigation systems were litles and singles, after it worked on the means of delivery of water and water management, began to increase the size of the irrigation systems, to the end of the 19th century, the total irrigated areas was 48 million hectares. In the mid 20th century, the world irrigated area was 121 million hectares, at the beginning of the 21st century global irrigated area was 277 million hectares, in 2012 the world’s irrigated area was 324 million hectares, the countries further development have achieved in irrigation in the world are: India-67, China-65, US-26 and Pakistan with 20 million hectares respectively, the sum of the irrigated areas of these four countries account for 55% of the surface irrigation world, another group of countries with more than 6 million hectares is composed of: Iran, Indonesia, Mexico and Thailand account for 9% of the total area, Table 1.

According to FAO data, current projections indicate that the world population will increase from the current 7.2 million people to more than 9 million in 2050. The economic progress, especially in emerging countries, resulting in an increased demand for food and diversified diets. Therefore, there will be a strong growth in global demand for food, and food production is expected to increase by 70% worldwide and 100% in developing countries. However, land and water resources, the basis of our food production are limited and are already under great pressure, so that future agricultural production will have to be more productive and at the same time, more sustainable.

The demand for land, water and food continuously increases by the increase in world population, to achieve sustainability of the planet earth, mankind, the animal and plant species, is need a proper balance of resources demanded by humanity and the growth unsustainable global population.. The water through irrigation greatly increased food production and set to genetics and climate are factors to consider in the final balance.

 

Irrigated area in the main countries in million hectares.

Dibujo 64 Irrigation area main countries

In developing the work has been used information from different sources: Publications FAO statistics, technical publications irrigation areas in different countries, Global irrigation area countries in 1993 and in 1987 Juan G.R., Agricultural irrigation Statistics 2003 Wikipedia, Production Yearbook and experience of 50 years devoted to the problem of water and irrigation.

 

 

 

 

 

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