Water deficit and death from heat stroke in 2018

Juan G. R., Juan P. J. A. Water deficit and death from heat stroke in 2018.

 Water and Irrigation Vol.: 11, No. 1: 13-16, April 1, 2020, Spain.

 Death from heat stroke is frequently manifested by the combined action of the water deficit in the body, the high climatic demand caused by the heat wave and the joint action of the different climate factors acting on the individual. The study analyzes the results of the spring and summer of 2018. The body’s water deficit was evaluated for values ​​of 1.9 to 2.3 ml / min for the flow of urine. Deaths due to heat wave are reported by Spain, Japan, South Korea and these increased with the increase in temperatures as a consequence of global warming in relation to the year 2017.

From the investigations on urine flow and its relationship with climatic factors that were carried out in Alicante for 3 years, 2017-2019 for the different times of the year, which consider winter, spring, summer and autumn, the body water deficit for values ​​of 1.9 to 2.3 ml / min for urine flow and for normal urine flow with values ​​greater than 2.9 ml / min, during Phase 1 of the investigations, which are included between the period of time between 1.0 am and 10.0 am.

Climatic factors were taken from AEMET data sources at the El Altet Climatic station located about 10 km away from where the investigations were carried out, daily evaluating the behavior of urine and influencing climatic factors: temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind speed.

Research indicates that in adults, the water deficit and the lack of water in the body, reflect that it is necessary to take an adequate supply of water, so to counteract the adverse effects of heat waves during the summer and spring, You should normally drink around 2 liters of liquid a day, plus an additional contribution of 700 ml / day for the water contained in the food eaten: fruits, vegetables, different meats and fish, cereals, grains and other foods. In addition, additional water must be supplied when the intense heat waves appear, additionally providing 150 to 200 ml each time the heat waves appear.

The results obtained are in agreement with those reported by the Carlos III Health Institute for the period 2000-2009, which indicate that it is necessary to increase care for certain groups of the population, such as the elderly, children and some chronically ill As a consequence of the effects of heat waves, these already cause risky situations for those who work in the sun during the central hours of the day and can also affect young people. The population’s exposure to heat is increasing due to climate change, and this trend will continue. On a global scale, it is observed that extreme temperature phenomena are increasing in terms of their frequency, duration and magnitude. Between 2000 and 2016, the number of people exposed to heat waves increased by approximately 125 million. Exposure to excessive heat has far-reaching physiological impacts on all humans, and often amplifies existing conditions and results in premature death and disability, according to WHO.

In 2015, 23 deaths occurred in Spain, of which 18 were in the longest recorded 26-day heat wave, between June 27 and July 22. The worst data was in 2004, when the data began to be recorded and there were 26 cases of heat stroke according to national sources.

The hydric deficit and the scarcity of water in the body are manifested at different times of the year depending on the characteristics of the climatic year and the physiology of the individual, being generally more frequent during summer and spring. In the spring of 2018, there were 5 days with a water deficit, but the temperatures recorded for the time are considered normal and when no heat waves appear, there are no deaths due to heat stroke, Table No 1. In the summer of 2018, it increased considerably the number of deaths and the attention of cases due to heat stroke due to the effects of the heat wave, Table No. 2. In each period 90 evaluations were carried out, but in Tables 1 and 2 only the days in which there were water deficit and some days with normal values ​​of urine flow, which are the most common observations, later the results of the year 2019 will be reported, which reflects a greater number of victims as a result of global warming.

Death from heat stroke is frequently manifested by the combined action of the water deficit in the body and the high climatic demand caused by the heat wave and the joint action of the different climate factors acting on the individual, as observed in the applied studies.

Table No 1.Incidences of water deficit during spring 2018

Specifi

cations

2018

Time Urine T Inten

sity

 

Observations Climatic Data
Spring

Day/

month

AM

Phase 1

ml min ml

/min

6-4 1.0-3.2

3.2-6.2

6.2-8.1

 

330

400

250

 

140

180

110

 

2.4

2.2

2.3

 

Water Deficit Effect. Stable weather condition Water reserves in the body are very low. H 1-6.0-8.0-5.0

T º 13-15-16-17

HR%63-48-41-71

PB  998- 995

    994- 990 hPa

Wind gusts 9 to 45 km / h.

7-4 1.0-3.5

3.5-6.4

6.4-8.3

 

400

350

250

170

170

110

 

2.4

2.1

2.3

 

Water Deficit Effect. Stable weather condition Water reserves in the body are very low H 1-4.0-8.0-5.0

T º 15-15-13- 18

HR 72-68-78-70

PB  988- 986

    987-985 hPa

Wind gusts 13 to 32 km / h.

21-5 1.0-4.3

4.3-7.2

7.2-8.3

 

500

350

170

210

170

 70

 

2.4

2.1

2.4

 

Water Deficit Effect. Stable weather condition Water reserves in the body are very low. H 1.-5.0-9.0-5.0

T º 17-14-18-23

HR 85-88- 73-48

PB  994- 992

    993-991 hPa

Wind gusts 8 to 33 km / h.

30-5 1.0-3.4

3.4-7.0

7.0-8.3

 

400

400

200

 

160

200

 90

 

2.5

2.0

2.2

 

Water Deficit Effect. Stable weather condition Water reserves in the body are scarce. H 1.-7.0-9.0-5.0

T º 18-17-21- 25

HR 81-73-53-42

PB 992- 992

   993-991 hPa

Wind gusts 8 to 33 km / h.

31-5 1.0-3.3

3.3-6.0

6.0-8.1

 

400

300

300

 

150

150

130

 

2.7

2.0

2.3

 

Water Deficit Effect. Stable weather condition Water reserves in the body are scarce. H 1.-6.0-8.0-5.0

T º 19-17-21-28

HR 68-62-51-32

PB 995- 995

   996-996 hPa

Wind gusts 9 to 32 km / h

16-6 1.0-3.2

3.2-5.0

5.0-6.4

6.4-8.2

 

400

300

300

330

 

140

100

100

100

 

2.9

3.0

3.0

3.3

 

Low moderate PB and low moderate HR perform urine influence in Phase No 1.Wind gusts 5 to 30 km H 1.-5.0-8.0-5.0

T º 21-19-21-28

HR 81-82-79-36

PB 995- 994-

   995-994 hPa

 

 

Table No 2. Deaths due to heat wave effect and water deficit in urine in the summer of 2018

Specifi

cations

Time Urine T Inten

sity

Observations                                                                                                 
Summer

Day/

month

AM

Phase 1

ml. min. ml/m
2018          
5-7 A heat wave in North Africa was recorded in Algeria in the Sahara desert with a temperature of: 51.3 ° C.
25-7 1.0-4.0

4.0-7.0

7.0-8.2

400

400

200

180

180

  80

2.2

2.2

2.5

Water Deficit. Although PB and HR are favorable, the body’s water reserves are low. Heat wave causes 80 deaths in Japan, T> 41ºC and 29 in South Korea T 40 º C
3-8 1.0-3.4

3.4-6.5

6.5-8.2

 

370

400

200

 

160

190

  90

        

2.3

2.1

2.2

Water deficit. In some areas of Spain heat wave of 42-44 º C. There are three deaths in Spain from the heat wave. New 200 ml water supply to compensate for heat wave.
5-8 1.0-3.2

3.2-6.0

6.0-8.2

330

350

300

140

160

140      

2.4

2.2

2.1

Water Deficit. Heat wave above 40º C, in Huelva 46.6º C on 3/8, there are already 6 deaths in Spain.
6-8 1.0-4.2

4.2-6.4

6.4-8.2

450

400

200

200

140

100         

2.3

2.9

2.0

Stable weather conditions.The 44º C heat wave continues in Badajoz and 43 º C in Córdoba.
7-8 1.0-4.4

4.4-7.1

7.1-8.3

 

450

350

200

 

220

150

  80

         

2.1

2.3

2.5

 

Water deficit. Add new 100 ml water supply to counteract heat wave, and add additional 300 ml water supply. There are already 10 dead in Spain of them one is from the Valenciana Community. In Alicante T is 33º C.
High temperatures have left 23 victims in Catalonia this summer, 21 of them during the heat wave that affected between August 2 and 7, according to the Catalan Health Department
9-8 1.0-3.2

3.2-6.4

6.4-8.4

300

450

300

140

200

 120     

2.1

2.3

2.5

Water Deficit. Since the beginning of the summer, 11 patients have been treated for a heat stroke.

 

10-8 1.0-2.3

2.3-5.1

5.1-7.1

7.1-9.1

200

350

300

350

  90

160

120

120         

2.2

2.2

2.5

2.9

Stable weather conditions. Scarce water in the body. In Spain there are already a total of 1 8 deaths due to heat wave, T max. 38 º C. In Alicante T max 31 º C , T min 25 º C.                

 

15-8 1.0-3.0

3.0-6.0

6.0-8.4

300

400

350

120

180

 160     

2.5

2.2

2.2

Water deficit. In Caceres and Ourense, the T Max. reached 38 º C. Wind gusts 11- 33 Km./h

 

25-8 1.0-3.2

3.2-5.2

5.2-7.2

7.2-8.5

350

350

400

300

140

120

120

  90        

2.5

2.9

3.3

3.3

Low PB and low moderate HR perform urine influence in Phase No 1. Wind gusts 11 to 30 km / h.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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