Arruebarrena K.M., Pérez F.J., Diaz G.A.F. Harvest freshwater in the city of Puerto Padre, Las Tunas.
Filial City University of Puerto Padre. University of Las Tunas.
Water and Irrigation. Vol: 5, No. 1: 17-21, July, 2014, Spain.
It promotes environmentally appropriate management, socially and economically viable water in the city of Puerto Padre, by revitalizing ways for their production and the introduction of new technology variants in the production of this important resource. The results demonstrate that even in the semi-arid climatic conditions of the study area, with an annual average of 1005 mm rainfall pattern, you can get a harvest water of 42.2 m3 of, taking advantage of the 70% rainfall in the average home with a cover of 60 m2. The use of wind and desalination plants, power using renewable energy such as wind and solar, to help mitigate climate change and water problems.
Puerto Padre is a port town about 700 kilometers east of Havana. It is the capital of the municipality of the same name in the province of Las Tunas and has a population of about 35 thousand inhabitants representing 34% compared to the population of the municipality. In the past 50 years, the water supply to the population has been linked to extractions made from the groundwater and has had a significant and sprawl with very unfavorable results for the environment and especially for the health of people.
The urban growth implies the development of individual actions with respect to the drilling of artesian wells to ensure drinking water sources in each of the new homes, as this city with population of 3rd category. Order currently has no services aqueduct demand.
The plight of the problem of water pollution and groundwater adds climate change that is recorded in the region. The historical annual average precipitation in Las Tunas province reaches only the 1038 mm, being the lowest in the country and represents 78% over historical annual country rainfall is 1335 mm, the annual historical average region of Puerto Padre is 1005 mm. Moreover there are no major streams nearby surface water to this city, which combined with the described high levels of groundwater extraction jeopardize future possibilities environment for socio-economic development.
The rainwater harvesting systems are part of the construction of housing projects. Water needs for human consumption, are complemented by input from rain fall.
The results demonstrate that even in the semi-arid climatic conditions of the study area, with an annual average of 1005 mm rainfall patterns, allow us to make a harvest of 42.2 m3 of water, taking advantage of the 70% of rainfall in the average home with a cover of 60 m2.
System schema used for the rainwater harvesting
The groundwater extraction with the help of windmills, does not cause significant impacts to the environment due to its low extractive capacity. It manages to keep the balance between levels of extraction and natural recharge of the aquifer and thus the interface of fresh-water sea water does not experience changes. It prevents therefore pollution seawater intrusion.
On the beginning of the decade of the 60s, these wind pumps water, were losing their effectiveness with the appearance of electrical systems more efficient pump, which enabled increased availability of ground water for the population, the harvest rain had no significance before. With the disappearance of the windmills, the rainwater harvesting systems are called off and water cisterns were intended for other uses or were demolished to make way for newer designs.
In order to adapt technological variants of relatively low costs for the same purposes as to the availability of water, such as desalination systems seawater with the use of renewable energy, as widely used in regions of our planet where shortages water for human consumption imposes a truly dramatic tones existence itself.
Puerto Padre has a good potential for renewable energy, especially wind and solar that make the desalination of sea water can be an attractive application attempts to establish new production of fresh water and to achieve additional complementation that mitigate the effects of overexploitation.
Coastal area of the city of Puerto Padre, is an excellent setting for the adaptation of technology used in the desalination of sea water from solar energy to use.
Deposit plastic tanks.
The plastic, durable material and very low cost, can replace burdensome procedures resources and construction of reservoirs or cisterns where rainwater is stored. To control mosquito larvae and especially disease vectors in these deposits, it is necessary to enforce environmental and chemical methods. If necessary biological controls would be added such as larvivorous fish are an excellent choice in controlling the growth of mosquito habitat (Fimia, 2009)
For practical reasons it was considered a rainwater harvesting system would consist of:• A plastic tank with a capacity of 2100 L
• 9 m plastic pipe of 160 mm diameter. Commercial Specification: Tube 1 Horn L mm 3000 DN 160. Plastic pipe of 160 mm is used to design open gutters which are located parallel to the ceiling or bottom edge of the surface of interception of rain. Two meters of gutters are obtained per linear meter of pipe of 160 mm.
•It is necessary too 18 m of plastic pipe of 110 mm diameter. Commercial Specification: Tube 1 Horn L mm 3000 DN 110.With 110 mm plastic pipe are designed closed collector that by one of its ends are attached to the open collector as shown in Figure
-The use of windmills and desalination plants, power using renewable energy such as wind and solar, to help mitigate climate change and water problems.
-An average home with a deck of 60 m2 a harvest of 42.2 m3 water is obtained from annual rainfall of 700mm.