Global warming, forest fires and it disastrous effects in 2019.

Juan G. R., Juan G. R. and Juan P. J. A. Global warming, forest fires and it disastrous effects in 2019.  Water and Irrigation Vol.: 10, No. 1: 21-24, October 15, 2019, Spain.

 Worldwide there are more than 10 million ha affected by forest fires in 2019. The Amazon has an area of ​​4.8 million hectares affected by forest fires between Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. In Siberia, Russia has been razed 3.0 million ha. In India 1.3 million ha caught fire.  In addition every year they burn in Africa at the end of the dry season of 300 to 350 million Since they mainly affect pastures and land dedicated to crops, the fires are caused by farmers who use fire as an agricultural technique, in areas with few resources and non-mechanized agriculture, providing large emissions of harmful gases into the atmosphere. It is easy to understand that at the current rate of ruthless deforestation of forests, global warming and forest fires caused by the impact of human activity it does not allow long-term sustainable development. It is necessary to increase reforestation, reduce forest fires, to take measures to protect wildlife, flora, humanity and the planet Earth from extermination.

— Bolivia. The country most affected by forest fires in South America has been Bolivia. This year the flame have extended until September 15 to 4.1 million hectares approximately double what was recorded three years ago according to local sources

According to the Friends of Nature Foundation group, forest fires, which extend especially in the region of Santa Cruz de la Sierra – the center of the country – have already exceeded 3.8 million hectares destroyed in 2010.

— Brazil—The Amazon is spread across nine countries, but 60% is in Brazil. According to the images captured by satellites, 5,042 square kilometers of deforestation were recorded in Brazil according to the Deforestation Alert System .— 2– In 2019, more than 74,000 fire foci of them were recorded, about 50% correspond to the Amazon, according to the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil, affecting more than 500,000 hectares. The increase in flame is as a result of deforestation for the timber industry, for create arable land, for land dedicated to livestock and other human activities. First the forest clears, wait a few months for it to dry and then set it on fire when it is very dry. You ca not burn the forest immediately because it does not burn because the vegetation is very wet — 3 – An investigation by IPAM and the Federal University of Acre, in Brazil determined that the number of fires in the Amazon is directly related to deforestation: the ten municipalities in the region with the most warnings of deforestation are the ones that suffered the most fires in the year. –4 – The savanna vegetation fails to contribute part of the rain generated by the tropical forest, if the destruction of the forest exceeds a certain limit, the Amazon rainforest could change abruptly. The Amazon rainforest is more flammable despite being one of the wettest places in the world but if a certain level of deforestation is reached, the Amazon can reach a point of transformation without return according to Brazilian scientist Carlos Nobre, a researcher at the Institute of Advanced Studies of the University of Sao Paulo. The forests of the Amazon are capable of causing rains with the steam that transpire its leaves, one large and young tree has the capacity to transpire hundreds of liters per day.

— Paraguay. Another of the countries affected by the forest fires is Paraguay the flames have destroyed more than 241,000 hectares of vegetation in the north of the country, both in the Pantanal, as in Cerro Chovoreca, along the border with Bolivia according to local sources.

— There is little chance of natural forest fires in the Amazon because that would require that there be dry rays, that is, without rain, this is a frequent phenomenon in some parts of the world, but not in the Amazon. Another element that has made the jungle more vulnerable to flames is climate change, temperature rises, which are already occurring in the Amazon, make the jungle more flammable. The vast majority of fires that occur in this sparsely populated region are initiated by humans according to Jos Barlow, Professor of Conservation Sciences at Lancaster University .——- Deforestation reduces rainfall locally and it makes the forest drier and more flammable. When vegetation is burned, carbon immediately goes into the atmosphere and emits hundreds of millions of tons of carbon. Forests contain carbon stored in trees and vegetation: about 460 tons per hectare in the Amazon, says Diego Navarrete of the NGO Nature Conservancy.

— Russia. More than 3,000,000 hectares razed by 500 forest fires that ravaged Siberia, according to Deputy Minister of the Russian Ministry of Emergency, Alexander Chuprián. As a consequence of the large areas affected by the fires, clouds of smoke reach other regions of Siberia and the far east of Russia. In the Krasnoyarsk region there are 94 forest fires and in Irkutsk 137.

Ecologists fear a disaster over active fires in Siberia for weeks, with entire cities engulfed in black smoke and a sour smell, which threaten to accelerate the Arctic thaw. Every year gigantic forest fires are triggered in the vast isolated expanses of Siberia. But the fires this year reached such magnitude that a long-term environmental impact is feared, including in the Arctic thaw. The fires have been caused by dry storms and an “abnormal” heat of 30 º C that hit these regions since July, strong winds spread fires, affecting the neighboring regions, explained the Federal Forest Agency.

— European Union. Forest fires have destroyed around 300,000 hectares in 2019 and threaten to spread even more. Portugal and Spain are the countries of the Mediterranean where more forest fires occur with temperatures above 42 º C in the Ebro Valley, much of the fire as a result of high temperatures and the impact of human activity. Like other states of the European continent, affected by the African heat wave, with a record temperature of 45.1 º C in French territory, the nation felt damaged not only by high temperatures and drought, but by the action of the human activity, causing 90 percent of fires, according to the National Civil Protection Authority (ANPC).

—Asia—–. A total of 21 fires devastated part of the forests of the Great Khingan Mountain Range, in the Chinese autonomous region of Inner Mongolia, some 30,000 thunder and lightning have been recorded in the Cordillera and surrounding areas since the beginning of June. The lack of rainfall and high temperatures has also increased the risk of fires .– 2– 30 people have died during the work of extinguishing a forest fire that broke out in Muli County, in Sichuan Province, to the southwest from China, the fire was caused by lightning, according to local authorities .— 3 — The toxic haze of Indonesian forest fires has forced thousands of schools to close across the country and in neighboring Malaysia Fires to clear the land for agriculture are well controlled in the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. Jakarta is deploying thousands of security forces and airplanes to fight them. Air quality deteriorated to unhealthy levels in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia, east of Sumatra, with a horizon shrouded by dense fog, at 18/9. 2019. According to the Ministry of Education, about 1,500 schools closed in Malaysia due to air pollution, with more than one million students affected— 4 – The fire of some 26,000 hectares of forest in the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal , in the north of the country and the growing illegal logging makes it difficult to reduce air pollution in India. Forest fires, caused by wood smugglers, poachers and farmers have been a problem this year due to high temperatures and low rainfall. According to a report by the National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM), India loses about one million hectares of forest due to fires. With these losses, we must add the results of illegal logging, with an added value of 2,522 square kilometers of dense and moderately dense forest since 2013, according to the Indian Ministry of Environment.

— Africa .— It is the continent with the most active fires in the world in 2019 with: 7000 in Angola, 3000 in Republic of the Congo, 1000 in Zambia, 418 in Tanzania, 380 in South Africa and others in countries with smaller amounts according to Bloomberg. However, according to experts, the damage caused by fires in Africa is not comparable to what happens in other regions of the world — 2 — Most of the fires in Africa occur each year at the end of the Dry season, they respond to ancestral agricultural techniques used by man in agricultural and pastoral activities, are controlled and do not affect large wooded masses but pastures and farmland. Farmers use fires as an agricultural technique, but 10% are out of control according to Peter Moore, a fire management specialist at the FAO Department of Forestry. The system used is preferred by most farmers, especially in areas where they have few resources and agriculture is not mechanized, since it is cheaper, it can end certain pests and diseases, although in the medium term and without adequate management accelerate soil erosion, in many regions of the country there are fires by farmers in the land preparation phase due to the proximity of the rainy season .— 3 – Every year they burn in Africa a surface area between 300 to 350 million hectares according to the Global Fire Emissions Database. –4 — The most recent studies indicate that each year about 3% of the Earth’s surface area burns according to Moore. In many countries in Africa, fire management capacity is not well developed, accidents, lack of risk understanding, bad practices or carelessness are usually at the origin. The groups that defend the Environment warn that the technique of clearing and burning causes serious deforestation and loss of biodiversity, as well as the erosion of the earth and emissions of harmful gases into the atmosphere. Deforestation is real, although the main cause is not burning but logging. In Algeria, a maximum temperature of 51.3 ° C was recorded in July 2018.

—USA. The west coast of the USA It faced heat waves and is very prone to forest fires that affected thousands of hectares, temperatures of more than 40 º C were recorded in the states of California and Arizona. Also in the State of Alaska there were 48 forest fires.

—Australia. As a result of drought and high temperatures, the Australian continent has high probabilities of forest fires, in the state of South Australia 48.9 º C was reached, more than 790 fires have already been recorded. Australia report that has been razed more than 500,000 ha. Forest fires in New Zealand have affected thousands of hectares.

It is easy to understand that at the current rate of ruthless deforestation of our forests, global warming and forest fires caused by human action, to meet the needs of cheap energy, to the interests of the timber industry, to create arable land , to dedicate land to livestock and other human activities, make possible a gradual destruction of the flora and fauna and do not allow a long-term sustainable development of humanity and the planet Earth. It is necessary to increase reforestation in different countries, reduce forest fires, to take measures to protect wildlife, flora, humanity and planet Earth from extermination, as well as contribute to reducing global warming and environmental pollution. In 2019 the economic losses caused by the effect of the fires and their consequences are estimated at more than 50,000 million dollars.

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