Water and Industry. Themes related with the water issues.
Water Advisory Council. A. C. Mexico.
Water is used by the industry in different ways: for cleaning, heating and cooling; to generate steam, to transport dissolved substances or particulates; as raw material as a solvent and as a constituent part of the product itself (eg. Beverage industry .) Water and Industry.
Water withdrawals for industry are:
or globally: 22% of total water use;
or high-income countries: 59% of total water use;
or low-income countries: 8% of total water use.
Industries based on organic raw materials are those that contribute most significantly to the organic pollution, with the food industry pollutes the most. • The food sector’s contribution to the production of organic water pollutants are:
or high-income countries: 40%
or low-income countries: 54%
• In developing countries, 70% of industrial wastes are dumped untreated into waters where they pollute the usable water supply.
• The annual volume of water used by industry will rise from 752 km ³ / year in 1995 to an estimated 1,170 km ³ / year in 2025.
• By 2025 it is expected that industrial demand represents about 24% of total freshwater withdrawals.
• The dumping of industrial waste without adequate treatment returned to the water cycle is one of the most stressful. If water is contaminated with heavy metals, particles or chemical agents, or loaded with organic matter, obviously the quality of the water body or aquifer receiver affected. The levels of toxicity and lack of oxygen in water can damage or completely destroy downstream aquatic ecosystems, as well as lakes and dams, ultimately affecting riverine estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems.
• Past mining activities heavily contaminated groundwater and agricultural land with arsenic, damaging some 40 km ³, in the province of Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. A study conducted in 2000 by the International Cooperation Agency of Japan (JICA) concluded that the contamination would last for the next 30 to 50 years. An analysis of 1,000 water samples showed that arsenic contamination in some groundwater wells reached a level of 50 to 100 times higher than allowed by the guideline of the World Health Organization for drinking water (0.01 mg liters).
• In 1986 a fire destroyed a chemical store in Basel, Switzerland, near the border with France and Germany. Chemicals reached the Rhine River water through the sewer system of the plant, while using large amounts of water (10,000-15,000 m³) to fight the fire. The store contained large quantities of 32 different chemicals, including insecticides and raw ingredients. The consequences in water identified by the presence of a red colorant of a substance which turned the river of the same color. The main wave of chemicals substance destroyed eels, fish and insects and riparian habitat of small animals. The total population of eels was destroyed over 500 kilometers downstream, from Basel in Switzerland to Loreley in Germany. After the incident took 3 months for the contaminant concentrations to drop to normal levels.
Information taked from the 2 nd Report on the Development of Water Resources in the World, “Water, a shared responsibility” and the section Facts and figures on “Water and Industry” on the website of the Global Assessment of Water Resources ( WWAP).