Equal access to water: Improving gender relations around water access, use & governance in six countries.
Report from UN Development Programme Published on 17 Oct 2016.
Women and men access, use, and benefit from water differently; yet due to existing gender disparities, their relationship to water is often unequal. In many households, women are the primary users and managers of water for domestic activities, including cooking, cleaning, subsistence agriculture, health and sanitation; men primarily use water resources for income-generating activities such as irrigation for cash crops or supporting livestock. These inequalities are being further exacerbated, as climate change is causing increased water scarcity and uncertainty, more extreme flooding and droughts, and polluted freshwater resources.
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Juan G. R. and Juan G. M. Floods in Catalonia require more effective drainage works.
Water and Irrigation Vol .: 7, No. 1: 28-29, October, 2016, Spain.
Torrential rains of 220 millimiters over a period of 4 hours fell on the Costa Dorada in Catalonia have caused major floods that have affected the coastal strip, the strong streams created dragging cars and all that water in its path, causing the death of a person. The flood control should be intensified, it is necessary to project urban drainage systems in line with the effects of the cold drop and climate change that allow faster evacuation of urban runoff and ensure greater security for the population, tourists and the material goods.
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Water: drinkability, availability and use in Mexico.
Simón Vargas Aguilar. Opinion, 06.10.2016, Mexico.
The availability of water in sufficient quantity and condition, has a direct impact on the quality of life and social development in Mexico. The agricultural sector occupies 76.7% of usable water, industry and thermoelectric use 4.2% and 4.9% respectively. Currently the annual / inhabitant average reaches 5,000 cubic meters of water. 94.6% of private dwellings have piped water service and 92.8% have sewer service. 27.6% of waste waters collected in urban centers is treated. Mexico ranks seventh in the world of surface irrigation infrastructure.
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Juan G. R. Water problem in Spain hydrological year 2015-2016.
Water and Irrigation Vol.: 7, No. 1: 26-27, October, 2016, Spain.
In the begin of the 2016-2017 hydrological year minimum reserves of water in reservoirs are low in Mediterranean basins: Segura, Júcar, the Andalusian Mediterranean and the Internal Catalonia with average values of: 24%, 26%, 36 % and 55% respectively in these 4 basins water reserves are below the average of the last 10 years. There are also two other major watersheds begin to feel the effects of deficit rainfall, the river Ebro and the Guadalquivir To cope with the insufficient contribution of rainfall is necessary to perform appropriate strategies such as planting, management irrigation water in different cultures and rational management of water in reservoirs and groundwater basins.
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Juan G. R. Floods in China in the summer of 2016.
Water and Irrigation Vol.: 7, No. 1: 23-25, October, 2016, Spain.
Summer and spring of 2016 in China have been characterized by a great storm activity and typhoons affecting large areas. Floods and bad weather have caused more than 600 dead or missing, affecting 30 provinces, have been evacuated hundreds of thousands of people. More than 6.5 million hectares of crops have been flooded, some 300,000 homes were destroyed or were damaged, torrential rains have affected businesses, infrastructure, roads, communication networks and power grids Economic losses are estimated at more than 30,000 million euros.
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Unsafe air pollution levels affect 9 in10 people globally
Justin Worland, Science Environment, Sept. 27, 2016
More than 90% of the world’s population lives in areas with unsafe pollution levels, the study incorporates data in 3,000 cities and towns across the globe. Unsafe air-pollution levels hit every region tracked, but some areas are worse off than others. Residents of Africa, Asia and the Middle East tend to face the worst pollution, in Europe, more than 60% of high-income cities fall short including Paris and London. Around 15% of cities in high-income in the Americas, including places like Los Angeles and Manhattan, fall short of WHO standards. It is not a problem in the developing world is the all. In developing countries, levels of particulate matter continue to increase in line with economic and industrial growth, and the rise in car ownership.
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Economic feasibility of localized irrigation in coffee cropping
Dr. C. Roberto Martínez Varona, Dr. C. Enrique Cisneros Zayas,
Instituto de Investigaciones de Ingeniería Agrícola (IAgric), Boyeros, La Habana, Cuba.
Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agrícolas Vol.25 No.2: pp. 44-50 San José de las Lajas abr.-jun. 2016
This research was aimed at defining from the economical point of view, an appropriate surface localized irrigation technology to cultivate coffee trees for the soil climatic conditions of San Andres, from the evaluation of the effect of settled plantations of two moisture areas (52 and 100 % of vital space) and two irrigation intervals (every 3 and 5 days) over agricultural yields and obtain profitability according the technology used. Among the technological variants studied, the best result showed was the one included to wet as minimum 52% of vital area every 5 days, where best yields were obtained (24,46t/ha coffee cherry) and the biggest relations Benefit/Cost (4,19) benefits obtained with relation to capital spent to long term (32,36) to a total cost per irrigation (2,45) as well as the highest net profits (67 377,7 pesos/ha).
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