Melting in the poles continues with its implacable advance.

Juan G. R., Juan G. R., Juan P. J. A. Melting in the poles continues with its implacable advance.

Water and Irrigation Vol .: 8, No. 1: 7-8, July 2017, Spain.

Global warming intensifies, 2016 has been very hot and 2017 is not behind it behaves also hot, mainly due to greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activity and climate change. November and December temperatures in the Arctic have been 5 degrees above average, last year at the North Pole were very high temperatures near zero degree. Currently an iceberg of about 5,800 square kilometers, has been detached from the continental mass at the South Pole in early July 2017 and is floating in the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest recorded. The increase in water levels in the seas and oceans has among other consequences that some islands in the Pacific archipelago have already disappeared and others are in the process of disappearing, sea waters also invade other low coastal areas in different regions of the world.

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World Day to combat Desertification and Drought, 2017.

World Day to combat Desertification and Drought, 2017.

UN, 18 June,2017.

, 2017

Bandiagara, a town in the semi-arid central plateau of Mali inhabited by mainly agricultural Dogon people. UN Photo/Alejandra Carvajal.

Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas. It is caused primarily by human activities and climatic variations. Desertification does not refer to the expansion of existing deserts. It occurs because dryland ecosystems, which cover over one third of the world‘s land area, are extremely vulnerable to overexploitation and inappropriate land use. Poverty, political instability, deforestation, overgrazing and bad irrigation practices can all undermine the productivity of the land.

Over 250 million people are directly affected by desertification, and about one billion people in over one hundred countries are at risk. These people include many of the world‘s poorest, most marginalized and politically weak citizens.

The World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought is observed every year to promote public awareness of international efforts to combat desertification. The day is a unique moment to remind everyone that land degradation neutrality is achievable through problem-solving, strong community involvement and co-operation at all levels.

“Land degradation and migration”

This year the World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought examine the important link between land degradation and migration. Among others, environmental degradation, food insecurity and poverty are causes of migration and development challenges.
In just 15 years, the number of international migrants worldwide has risen from 173 million in 2000 to 244 million in 2015.

This year’s celebration looks at specific ways local communities can build resilience against current multi-fold development challenges through sustainable land management practices. This day should remind everyone of land’s important role in producing food and generating local employment, as well as its ability to add to the sustainability, stability and security of desertification-affected places. Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, hosts the global observance of 2017, organized by the Ministry of Environment, Green Economy and Climate Change.

Desertification and the Sustainable Development Goals

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development declares that “we are determined to protect the planet from degradation, including through sustainable consumption and production, sustainably managing its natural resources and taking urgent action on climate change, so that it can support the needs of the present and future generations”. Specifically, Goal 15 states our resolve to halt and reverse land degradation.

http://www.un.org/en/events/desertificationday/

Juan G. R. Drought in Spain, its effects at the beginning of summer 2017.

Juan G. R. Drought in Spain, its effects at the beginning of summer 2017.

Water and Irrigation Vol .: 8, No. 1: 5-6, June 2017, Spain.

The current volume of water in Spain is 31326 hm3, which represents only 56% of the capacity of the reservoirs. The rivers of the large basins are affected by drought and in all, the reservoir water are below the last 10 years. The lack of rains is prolonged and the drought is prolonged, economic losses are already manifest in large areas of Spain, especially in Castile and Leon, Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, Canarias, some areas of Castilla-La Mancha, Extremadura, Aragon , The Valencian Community, Murcia and Andalusia, in different river basins of the Spanish rivers, reason why it is necessary an adequate management of the reserves of surface waters and underground and a rational management of the water of the irrigation to face the campaign of summer and the next irrigation campaign.

Continuar Leyendo Juan G. R. Drought in Spain, its effects at the beginning of summer 2017.

World Oceans Day 8 June, 2017

World Oceans Day 8 June, 2017

“The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is an ambitious framework which, together, we will use to address these threats and improve people’s lives. The World Oceans Day provides an important opportunity to advocate for a sustainable future.”

— António Guterres, Secretary-General of the United Nations

2017 Theme: “Our oceans, our future”

The oceans cover about two-thirds of the surface of the Earth and are the very foundations of life. They generate most of the oxygen we breathe, absorb a large share of carbon dioxide emissions, provide food and nutrients and regulate climate. They are important economically for countries that rely on tourism, fishing and other marine resources for income and serve as the backbone of international trade.

Unfortunately, human pressures, including overexploitation, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, destructive fishing, as well as unsustainable aquaculture practices, marine pollution, habitat destruction, alien species, climate change and ocean acidification are taking a significant toll on the world’s oceans and seas.

Peace and security are also critical to the full enjoyment of the benefits that can be derived from the oceans and for their sustainable development. As has been remarked by the Secretary-General:
“There will be no development without security and no security without development.”
This year’s theme for the Day is “Our oceans, our future” and is connected to the Ocean Conference taking place from 5 to 9 June at United Nations headquarters in New York.

Why celebrate World Oceans Day?

• To remind everyone of the major role the oceans have in everyday life. They are the lungs of our planet, providing most of the oxygen we breathe.
• To inform the public of the impact of human actions on the ocean.
• To develop a worldwide movement of citizens for the ocean.
• To mobilize and unite the world’s population on a project for the sustainable management of the world’s oceans. They are a major source of food and medicines and a critical part of the biosphere.
• To celebrate together the beauty, the wealth and the promise of the ocean.

As in previous years since 2014, the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea is recognizing on 8 June the winners of the Annual World Oceans Day Oceanic Photo Competition in an event at United Nations Headquarters.

http://www.un.org/es/events/oceansday/

Drought in Yucatán will cause water pollution

Drought in Yucatán will cause water pollution

Paul Antoine Matos.

The Mayan Journey, Merida, Yucatan, Tuesday, May 15, 2017.

Due to factors such as climate change and deforestation, drought seasons in recent years have seen high temperatures in Mexico, if drought continues to be damaged by water pollution from sodium and chlorine, the most worrisome of this increase in temperature is the reduction of rainfall, which will reduce the recharge of the aquifer and threatens to destabilize the water in the subsoil, which would affect the productive and social sectors of Yucatan. With droughts or rising sea levels, the salt water exerts more pressure on the already reduced freshwater lens and enters this layer, which causes a greater salinization of the water table and breaks the equilibrium in the aquifer.

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Costa Rica launches groundwater plan in July.

Costa Rica launches groundwater plan in July.

Juan Fernando Lara S., Periódico La Nación, 10/5/2017, Costa Rica.

Using high resolution maps and images to locate aquifers and recharge zones, Costa Rica begins to assess the status and potential of its groundwater to ensure the future’s resource and to better plan water use. To achieve this, the Ministry of Environment and Energy announced the launch by July of a joint project with the United States Geological Survey, in which they worked since December 2015. Research will provide high-resolution maps and images of the water resource, maps based on remote sensing developed by the USGS, will provide information on spatial distribution of water, flow directions, confining conditions of the liquid and recharge areas.

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Climatic effect of irrigation over the Yellow River Basin.

Climatic effect of irrigation over the Yellow River Basin.

April 21, 2017, China.

As a sensitive region of global climate change, the Yellow River basin, situated in arid and semiarid regions, also plays an important role in food production. However, using water resources in the Yellow River basin is challenging due to the drought and increasing water consumption. The agricultural irrigation affects the regional climate mainly through changing the surface water process. The results indicated that when irrigation was induced, the mean surface air temperature decreased, the cooling effect was consistent with the changes in evapotranspiration and heat fluxes due to irrigation. Agriculture irrigation leads to a greater probability of cloud formation, which then impacted the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and precipitation.

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